Remaining Free Tribes Of the world

Remaining Free Tribes Of the World



Asia

[edit]Andaman Islands

Two tribes of the Andaman Islands, belonging to India, have sought to avoid contact with the outside world.

The Sentinelese continue to actively and violently reject contact. They live on North Sentinel island, a small and remote island which lies to the west of the southern part of South Andaman Island. They are thought to number around 250 (median estimate). Based on helicopter surveys of the island, the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami does not appear to have affected the Sentinelese adversely.

They are believed to be directly descended from the first humans that emerged "out of Africa". It is estimated that they have lived on their island for 60,000 years. Their language is markedly different from even other languages on the Andamans, which suggests that they have remained uncontacted for thousands of years. They are thus considered the most isolated people in the world, and they are likely to remain so, because India abandoned attempts to make contact. [2]

Another Andamanese tribe, the Jarawa, live on the main islands. They rejected all contact, but following the completion of a trunk road traversing their territory in 1997, some have begun emerging from the forest to beg for food. They are thought to number 300 persons.

[edit]Vietnam

The Ruc people, when first "discovered" by North Vietnamese soldiers during the Vietnam War, were still hunting-gathering tribes, dwelling in caves of eastern Quang Binh province. Since then, the government has made many attempts to relocate and settle them.[3]

[edit]Oceania

[edit]Australia

Main article: Pintupi Nine

In 1984, a group of Pintupi people who were living a traditional hunter-gatherer life were tracked down in the Gibson Desert in Western Australia. For the first time they encountered people from European-Australian society. They are believed to be the last uncontacted tribe in Australia.[4]

[edit]New Guinea

Large areas of New Guinea are yet to be explored by scientists and anthropologists due to a lack of safety. The province of Irian Jaya or West Papua in the island of New Guinea is home to an estimated 44 uncontacted tribal groups.[5] Isolated tribes have been reported also in the eastern Indonesian islands.

[edit]The Americas:

[edit]Mexico

The Lacandon of Chiapas, near the border with Guatemala, were the last known isolated people in North America. They were contacted in 1924.

[edit]

On January 18, 2007, FUNAI reported that it had confirmed the presence of 67 uncontacted tribes in Brazil, up from 40 in 2005.[7] With this reported increase, Brazil has surpassed the island of New Guinea as the region having the highest number of uncontacted tribes (however, numbers are not available for Papua New Guinea).

[edit]Bolivia

As of 2006, the presence of five uncontacted groups was confirmed in Bolivia. A further three are to be confirmed. Those uncontacted groups whose presence has been confirmed are:Ayoreo in Parque Nacional Kaa IyaMbya-Yuqui in Yuqui Reservation and Rio Usurinta (most of the Yuqui are now contacted, only a few families remain uncontacted), Yurakare in Santa Cruz and Beni, Pacahuara in the Chacobo reservation, and Araona in the Araona Reservation. The presence of other groups such as Toromona in the Parque Nacional Madidi, and Nahuain the PN Madidi are yet to be confirmed.

NamePop (Est)LocationCommentary
Sinabo/Kapuibo (Nahua)under 200Between Lower Beni and Lower Yata
  • Pano language. Related to the Chakobo.
  • Some sources question their existence.
Yanaigua100–200Between the Rio Grande and Upper San Miguel
  • Pano according to some; more likely Tupi-Guarani related to the Yuqui.
  • Mainly hunter-gatherers.
  • They live on the Guarayos forest reserve.
Yuqui100Between Upper Ichilo and Upper Yapacani
  • Tupi-Guarani language.
  • Small uncontacted group of Yuqui. Mainly hunter-gatherers.
  • They live in the Amboro national park.

Brazil:
NamePop (Est)LocationCommentary
Apiakáover 100Mato Grosso — Between Lower Juruena and Lower Teles Pires
  • Tupi-Guarani.
  • Isolated Apiaká group.
  • Were massacred some time ago.
Apurinãover 50Amazonas — Upper rio SepatiniArawak.
Aruá75 at mostRondônia
  • Tupi-Mondé
  • Between the rios Mequens and Colorado
  • Living over both the Rio Branco I.T. and the Guaporé B.R.
  • Rio São Miguel
  • Outside reserves.
  • Area invaded by loggers.
  • Frequent fighting.
Avá-Canoeiro30Northern Goiás and Bananal Island, in Tocantins.
  • Tupi-Guarani.
  • Small groups of highly mobile hunter-gatherers.
Guaja120 [already counted among the known group]Maranhão — Scattered throughout the western part of the state
  • Tupi-Guarani.
  • Small groups of highly mobile hunter-gatherers (even after contact).
  • They have their own I.T. but also move in and out of several other reserves.
Ingarunearound 100North Pará — Rio Cuminapanema and Paru de Oeste
  • Karib.
  • Related to the Kachuyana.
  • Existence confirmed by the Poturuyar (recently contacted Tupi-Guarani). They live within the latter's I.T.
Kanibo (Mayo)120–150Rio Quixito, Javari Basin, AmazonasProbably Pano.
  • Several unsuccessful official contacts.
  • Occasional contacts with loggers.
Kaniwa (Korubo)300malocas in Between Lower Ituí and Lower Itacuaí, AmazonasPano.
  • Occasional contacts.
  • Hostile.
Karafawyana and other isolated Carib tribes.400–500Four locations in Roraima and north Pará.
  1. Source of the Jatapu.
  2. Rio Urucurina, tributary of the Mapuera.
  3. Rio Kafuini, tributary of the Trombetas.
  4. Upper Turuna, tributary of the Trombetas.
Mostly Cariban.
  1. Karib, Parukoto-Charuma sub-group.
  2. Related to the Waiwai.
  3. Some individuals visit Waiwai communities without warning the authorities. This is how they obtain their metal tools.
  4. Partly in the Trombetas-Mapuera I.T.
Karitiana50–100Upper Rio Candeias, Rondônia.Tupi-Arikem. Identified by the small group that has been contacted.
Katawixi50Upper Rio Muquim, tributary of the Purus, Amazonas.Isolated language. One community only has been located.
Kayapó do Rio Liberdadeover 100Lower Rio Liberdade, northern Mato Grosso.Gé. Identified by other Kayapó towards whom they are hostile.
Kayapó-Pu'ro100Lower Rio Curuá, South Pará.Kayapó. Group which has broken away from the Mekragnoti since 1940. Outside Kayapó I.T.
Kayapó-Pituiaro200Rio Murure, South Pará.Kayapó. Group which has broken away from the Kuben-kranken since 1950. Partly outside Kayapó I.T.
Kayapó-Kararaoaround 50Lower Rio Guajara, South Pará.Kayapó. Group which has broken away from the Kararao. Struggles are part of their traditions.
KulinaunknownRio Curuça, tributary of the Javari, Amazonas.Arawan. Small isolate communities belonging to the big Kulina group.
Maku (Nadeb)around 100Uneiuxi and Urubaxi Basins, Amazonas.Isolated language. Isolated elements of Maku groups that have already been contacted. Hunter-gatherers.
Mamaindé50–100Upper Rio Corumbiara, Rondônia.Isolated language. Isolated group of Nambikwara. A no-entry zone was allocated and then cancelled under local pressure. Recently massacred.
Hi-Merimã1,500Riozinho, tributary of the Cuniuã, Purus Basin, Amazonas.Arawan(?). Were massacred in 1986. Their area has recently been declared protected.
Mayoruna200–3003 locations in Amazonas:
  1. Rio Batã, source of the Javari.
  2. Rio Pardo.
  3. Between the Pardo and middle Javari.
Pano. Small isolated communities of the large Mayoruna group.
Miqueleno (Cujubi)?Upper Rio São Miguel, RondôniaIsolated Chapakura language. Area invaded by loggers. Recently massacred.
Nereyanaaround 100Rio Panama, headwaters of Paru do Oeste, North Pará.Karib. Perhaps more closely related to the Kachuyana than to the Tiriyo.
Pacaás Novos
  • (2) Oromawin sugroup
around 150Serra dos Pacaás Novos, Rondônia.
  • (2) Source of the Rio Formoso, Rondônia.
Isolated Chapakura language. Isolated groups belonging to the major Pacaás Novos group. Included in the Uru-eu-wau-wau I.T.
  • (2) Neighbouring one of the Pacaás Novos I.T.
Papavo Supergroup, which includes:
  1. Mashco/Harakmbet
  2. Culina
  3. Amahuaca
  4. Yawanahua
over 400Acre (Scattered over a single large territory)
  • (1) Rio Breu, headwaters of the Upper Jurua.
  • (2,3,4) Between the sources of the Envira and the Muru, and Igarapé Xinané, tributary of the Purus, overflowing into Peru.
Many isolated communities belonging to four distinct groups. Struggling is part of their traditions: reciprocal hostile contacts with the Kampa (whom they plunder), and peaceful ones with the Kulina; they plunder the loggers' encampments.
  • (1) Isolated language — On the extractivist reserve of Alto Jurua.
  • (2,3,4)-(2) Arawan, (3,4) Panoan — Two I.T. have been set up for them.
Pariuaiaover 100Rio Bararati, tributary of the Lower Juruena, Amazonas.Probably Tupi-Kawahib, Tupi-Guarani. Have refused all contact since 1930.
Piriutiti100–200Rio Curiau, Amazonas.Related to the Waimiri-Atroari (Karib). Some live in, others outside, the latter's I.T.
SateréunknownRio Parauari, tributary of the Maués-açu, Amazonas.Tupi. Communities that split away from the Sateré-Maué a long time ago.
Tupi-Kawahib (Piripicura)200–300Between the Madeirinha and Roosevelt rivers, northern Mato Grosso.Tupi-Guarani. A no-entry zone has just been allocated for them.
Uru-Eu-Wau-Wau300Serra dos Pakaás-Novas, Rondônia.Tupi-Guarani. There remain over 3 uncontacted groups. Several hostile encounters with gold-seekers and loggers. All are included in the vast Uru-eu-wau-wau I.T.
Wayãpi (Yawãpi)100–150Upper Ipitinga, between the Jari and the Paru do Leste, northern Pará.Tupi-Guarani. Group which formerly broke away from the Southern Wayãpi.
Yakarawakta20–30Between the Rios Aripuanã and Juruena, Mato Grosso Norte.Tupi-Guarani. Probably an Apiaka sub-group.
Yanomami300Amazonas
  1. Upper Marauia
  2. Between the Demini and the Catrimani
Yanomami.
  1. Within the I.T.
  2. Isolated communities; probably outside the I.T., but within the Rio Branco National Park.
name unknownaround 100Between the Upper Amapari and Upper Oiapoque, Amapa.Unspecified linguistic family. According to the Southern Wayãpi, a group that formerly broke away from them. According to the Northern Wayãpi, one of their former enemy groups, the Tapüiy.
name unknown (Isolados do Jandiatuba)300Between the Upper Jandiatuba and the Itacuaí, Amazonas.Maybe a Katukina group.
name unknown (Isolados do São José)300Igarapé São José, tributary of the Itacuaí, Amazonas.Seems to be a group distinct from Isolados do Jandiatuba.
name unknownunknownIgarapé Recreio, Cruzeiro do Sul municipality, Upper Juruá, Acre.Panoan(?)
name unknown (Isolados do Igarapé Tueré)unknownIgarapé Tueré, tributary of the Itacaiúnas, Pará.Tupi(?)
name unknown (Isolados do Arama e Inaui)around 100South of Rio Inauini, Purus Basin, Amazonas.
name unknown (Isolados do Igarapé Umari)unknownIgarapé Umari, tributary of the Ituxi, Amazonas.
name unknown (Isolados da Serra do Taquaral)unknownSerra do Taquaral, source of the Rio Branco, Rondônia.

[edit]Colombia

Despite ongoing paramilitary conflict, Colombia is a country which offers maximum protection for isolated groups. Carabayo-Aroje is the most important group, living in the Parque Nacional del Rio Pure. It is not known whether any Yari survives now. Nukaak Maku were contacted in 2003 and 65% of the tribal members died of disease. Around two or three dozen Nukaak still remain isolated.

NamePop (Est)LocationCommentary
Karabayo150Amazonas — Source of the Purué River, north of the Putumayo River
  • Isolated language.
  • Thought to be Maku, but more likely Yuri.
  • Overstepping the Brazilian border.
  • Hostile.
Guaviare Macusa (Now Nukaak Maku)300Guainia — Between the Guaviare River and the Inírida River
  • Isolated language.
  • Isolated Maku.
  • Small mobile groups of hunter-gatherers.
  • Recently contacted. Now about 50 remain uncontacted. Population fell from 800 to 300 in just one year. Contacted group under siege from FARC and New Tribes Mission and living in refugee camps.
name unknown (Isolados dos Rio Yari)unknownCaqueta — Upper Rio Yari
  • Karib or isolated language?
  • Karijona or Witoto sub-group.
  • Live in the Chiribiquete national park.

[edit]Ecuador

It is not known whether any Tagaeri survives now in Yasuni National Park. In the 1990s when a member of Tagaeri was contacted by a lone Huaorani hunter, he told him that Tagaeri numbers only a handful of members and are in danger of being wiped out by their hostile neighbours — the Taromenane. Since then there have been no more peaceful contacts. The Tagaeri hunter also mentioned about another group, the Oñamenane who numbered five or six individuals and there was one more tribe — the Huiñatare. In 2003 about 30 Taromenane were massacred by the Huaorani in retaliation for the killing of a Huaorani hunter. In the same year 14 Tagaeri were killed by loggers. In April 2006 a logger was speared to death by the Taromenane (in 2005 another one was also killed by the same tribe, whose body was later found embedded with 30 spears and his face unrecognizable). In the same month a further 30 Taromenane and 10 loggers were killed in conflicts according to leader Iki Ima Omene (of Huaorani). In Jan 2007 the president of Ecuador declared the Southern part of Yasuni a forbidden zone (7,580 square kilometers) in order to protect the uncontacted people. At the same time CONAIE reported that there are a total of 150–300 Taromenane (divided into two sub-tribes) and 20–30 Tagaeri surviving uncontacted there. The Oñamenane and Huiñatare are extinct. Ecuador continues to be the country with the largest number of uncontacted people massacred since 2000.

NamePop (Est)LocationCommentary
Huaorani100–200Oriente — Between the Upper Napo and Upper Curaray
  • Isolated language.
  • Segment hostile to the Waorani. Threatened by the advancing front of oil prospecting.

[edit]Guyana

NamePop (Est)LocationCommentary
Wapishana100Between the sources of the Essequibo River and the Tacutu River; Serra Acarai
  • Arawak.
  • Isolated segment of the Wapishana group.
  • They refuse all contact.
name unknownaround 100Between the Upper Courantyne and the New River
  • Karib.
  • Maybe related to the Tiriyo.

[edit]French Guiana

NamePop (Est)LocationCommentary
Wayãpi100Between the Eureupoucine and the Upper Camopi
  • Tupi-Guarani.
  • Group that broke away from the Wayãpi of Upper Oyapock around 1900.
  • They refuse all contact.

[edit]Peru

There are now five reserves in the Peruvian Amazon meant to protect the lands and rights of isolated peoples. Most of the reserves are currently entered by illegal loggers and petroleum companies with legal concessions to work in those lands, although their activities jeopardize the lives of the isolated populations.

After Brazil (43 uncontacted groups confirmed) and New Guinea (Papua New Guinea and Iriyan Jaya), Peru has the largest number of uncontacted tribes in the world. Some of the groups in Peru are in danger of extermination by loggers and oil development. As of 2006, the locations where uncontacted groups are confirmed to be living are as follows:

  1. Reserva Comunal Amarakaeri: Groups are Yora and other unidentified Panoan tribes.
  2. Zona Reservada Biabo Cordillera Azul: Cacatibo.
  3. Parque Nacional del Manu: Mashco-Piro, uncontacted bands of Matsiguenga, tribes belonging to Yura family and unidentified tribes.
  4. Reserva Comunal Asháninka, Reserva Comunal Matsiguenga and Parque Nacional Otishi: uncontacted bands of Ashaninka.
  5. Parque Nacional Alto Purús and Reserva Comunal Purús: Yaminahua, Chitonahua, Curajeño and Mashco-Piro-Iñapari.
  6. Reserva Territorial del Estado: Kungapakori, Nahua, Matsiguenga, Nanti, Krineri and other unidentified tribes.
  7. Reserva Territorial del Murunahua y Chitonahua: Murunahua, Chitonahua.
  8. Reserva Territorial del Isconahua: Isconahua.
  9. Reserva Territorial del Mashco-Piro: Various tribes belonging to Mashco-Piro such as Mascho-Piro-Iñapari.
  10. Reservas territoriales del Cacataibo: Cacataibo.
NamePop (Est)LocationCommentary
Morunahua150This group is probably related to the group that used to be called Papavo in Brazil.
Parquenahua200Pano. They live in the Manu national park.
Pisabo200Pano.

[edit]Suriname

NamePop (Est)LocationCommentary
Akulio50Watershed between Suriname and Brazil. Between the sources of the Itani and the Jari
  • Karib.
  • Last uncontacted segment of Akulio.
  • They refuse all contact.

[edit]Venezuela

NamePop (Est)LocationCommentary
Yanomami300–400 (already included in the total for Yanomami populations)Amazonas — Upper Siapa

[edit]Paraguay

There remain perhaps as many as 300 Totobiegosode who have not been contacted; they belong to the Ayoreo ethnicity, which numbers around 2,000. In the 1990s the main group attempting to contact them was New Tribes Mission. In 1979 and 1986, the New Tribes Mission was accused of assisting in the forcible contact of nomadic Ayoreo Indians, whose unsuccessful attempts to remain in the forest led to several deaths. Others died soon after being brought out of the forest. The incident forced some Ayoreo to flee to Bolivia. The main threat currently are the ranchers. In 2004 a group of 17 Ayoreo-Totobiegosode previously uncontacted made contact with the outside world and decided to settle down (five men, seven women and five children, according to Survival). It was not known whether there were any more isolated Ayoreo left in the jungle. But in the first week of September 2007, another uncontacted band of Ayoreo-Totobiegosode were spotted by loggers in the Western Chaco. Ayoreo are believed to be the last uncontacted Indians south of the Amazon basin.[9] In 2008, a Paraguayan ruling blocked a Brazilian company from clearing Totobiegosode to make room for cattle ranches.[10][11]Although the forest is still being cleared illegally.[12]

[edit]Popular culture

Uncontacted tribes remain a fascination in Western culture. Recently, the idea of tour operators offering extreme adventure tours to specifically search out uncontacted peoples has become a controversial subject [13]. A BBC Four documentary in 2006 documented a controversial American tour operator who specializes in escorted tours to "discover" uncontacted peoples in West Papua [14] similar to the BBC's own adventure in Papua New Guinea to make their 1971 documentary A Blank on the Map in which the first contact in over a decade was made with the Biami people.[citation needed]

Uncontacted tribes have also emerged in works of literature and film. One of them was The Lost World by Arthur Conan Doyle released in 1912. It depicts early human hominids in the jungle of South America. Inspired by it, a Russian novel written in 1924, Sannikov Land, describes an island off the Siberian coast populated by an isolated Siberian tribe of Onkilon (another name for non-fictional Yuit thought to be extinct at the time), followed in 1973 by a Soviet movie The Sannikov Land. The 1995 film Last of the Dogmen tells the story of a group of uncontacted Cheyenne discovered living in a remote part of Montana. In the 1991 film At Play in the Fields of the Lord (based on the novel of the same name), an American pilot parachutes from an airplane into the Amazon where he encounters and lives with a previously uncontacted tribe. The 1985 film The Emerald Forest features a Western boy kidnapped by a previously uncontacted Amazonian tribe called the "Invisible People". The 1980 film The Gods Must Be Crazy dealt with a fictitious uncontacted tribe in South Africa. The tribe enjoy idyllic lives until they are set into chaos simply by contact with an object (a Coca-Cola bottle) from modern society. One of the tribe's elders (played by a !Kung man) sets out to throw the bottle off the "edge of the earth" to save his tribe. In 2006 the docudrama End of the Spear recounts the story of Operation Auca, in which five American Christian missionaries attempted to evangelize the Huaorani people of the jungles of Ecuador.

[edit]See also

[edit]References

  1. ^ Isolated tribe spotted in Brazil
  2. ^ "The most isolated tribe in the world?". Survival International. Retrieved February 2010.
  3. ^ "Sự thật về những cơn đói của đồng bào Rục" (in Vietnamese). Retrieved February 2010. ("Chut people in famine"]
  4. ^ Colliding worlds: first contact in the western desert, 1932–84, National Museum of Australia
  5. ^ "First contact with isolated tribes?"BBC
  6. ^ "Ishi: The Last Yahi", University of California - San Francisco, Library
  7. ^ "Brazil sees traces of more isolated Amazon tribes", Reuters
  8. ^ Brazil: Land for last survivor of unknown Amazon tribe. Survival International. 9 November 2006.
  9. ^ Signs of uncontacted Indians seen as forest is cleared around them
  10. ^ Legal battle over forest is victory for Paraguayan IndiansCNN
  11. ^ Protect Uncontacted Tribe's Land!
  12. ^ http://www.survivalinternational.org/news/5436
  13. ^ You're a 21st-century adventure tourist bored with whitewater
  14. ^ First ContactBBC Four Anthropology Season, part 1 of 6

Contact with Sentinelese 60,000 years of isolation


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Africa

The continent of Africaincluding associated islands such as Madagascar, but excluding Arabia.

[edit]Central Africa

Central Africa generally includes the lands mainly of the Congo River basin, south of the Sahara and west of the Great Rift Valley.

[edit]East Africa

East Africa generally includes the Horn of Africa region and (parts of) surrounding countries.

[edit]North Africa

North Africa generally includes African countries with borders on the Mediterranean and northern Red Sea and Atlantic Ocean, bounded largely by the Sahara Desert to the south.

[edit]Southern Africa

Southern Africa generally includes lands from the Cape of Good Hope northwards to the borders of Democratic Republic of the Congo and Tanzania, and islands such as Madagascar.

[edit]West Africa

West Africa generally includes the region bounded by the Sahara Desert to the north and the Gulf of Guinea to the south.

[edit]Americas

the Americas is the continent (or supercontinent) comprising North and South America, and associated islands.

[edit]The Caribbean

the Caribbean, or West Indies, generally includes the island chains of the Caribbean.

[edit]Central America and Mexico

Central America generally includes the part of the North American (sub-)contintent from southern Mexico to and including Panama, this section includes indigenous peoples of Mexico.

[edit]North America

North America generally includes Greenland, Canada, the United States, Mexico, and the eastern Aleutian Islands.

[edit]South America

South America generally includes all of the (sub-)continent and islands south of the Isthmus of Panama.

[edit]Asia

The (sub-)continent of Asiaincluding related islands, the Indian subcontinentCentral Asian Republics, the Middle East and Arabia.

[edit]Central Asia

Women of the Ghilzai tribe ofPashtun people

Central Asia generally includes the landlocked region east of the Caspian Sea, south of the Russian Taiga, to the Himalayas, and extending eastwards to Mongolia and the western Chinese provinces and autonomous regions.

[edit]East Asia

East Asia generally includes the People's Republic of China, the Korean Peninsula, and the associated Pacific islands, principally Japan and Taiwan.

[edit]North Asia

North Asia generally includes the Russian Far East and the northern and eastern parts of Siberia.

[edit]South Asia

South Asia generally includes the Indian subcontinental region, the Himalayan states and related islands of the Indian Ocean.

[edit]Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia generally includes the mainland region sometimes known as Indochina, and the Malay archipelago.

[edit]Southwest Asia

Southwest Asia generally includes the region (formerly Persia) westwards of Pakistan, the Arabian peninsula, the Middle East, the LevantMesopotamia, the Caucasus region andAnatolia.

[edit]Circumpolar North

The Circumpolar North generally includes the lands surrounding the Arctic Circle.

[edit]Europe

Europe generally refers to the mass of the Eurasian peninsula westwards of the Ural Mountains, the islands of the Mediterranean and North Atlantic Ocean.

[edit]Oceania

Oceania includes most islands of the Pacific Ocean, New Guinea and the continent of Australia.

[edit]Australia

Australia includes the continental landmass, and associated islands.

[edit]Melanesian

Melanesian generally includes New Guinea and other (far-)western Pacific islands from the Arafura Sea out to Fiji.

[edit]Micronesia

Micronesia generally includes the various small island chains of the western and central Pacific.

[edit]Polynesia

Polynesia generally includes New Zealand and thus islands of the central and southern Pacific Oceans

[edit]

Africa

The continent of Africaincluding associated islands such as Madagascar, but excluding Arabia.

[edit]Central Africa

Central Africa generally includes the lands mainly of the Congo River basin, south of the Sahara and west of the Great Rift Valley.

[edit]East Africa

East Africa generally includes the Horn of Africa region and (parts of) surrounding countries.

[edit]North Africa

North Africa generally includes African countries with borders on the Mediterranean and northern Red Sea and Atlantic Ocean, bounded largely by the Sahara Desert to the south.

[edit]Southern Africa

Southern Africa generally includes lands from the Cape of Good Hope northwards to the borders of Democratic Republic of the Congo and Tanzania, and islands such as Madagascar.

[edit]West Africa

West Africa generally includes the region bounded by the Sahara Desert to the north and the Gulf of Guinea to the south.

[edit]Americas

the Americas is the continent (or supercontinent) comprising North and South America, and associated islands.

[edit]The Caribbean

the Caribbean, or West Indies, generally includes the island chains of the Caribbean.

[edit]Central America and Mexico

Central America generally includes the part of the North American (sub-)contintent from southern Mexico to and including Panama, this section includes indigenous peoples of Mexico.

[edit]North America

North America generally includes Greenland, Canada, the United States, Mexico, and the eastern Aleutian Islands.

[edit]South America

South America generally includes all of the (sub-)continent and islands south of the Isthmus of Panama.

[edit]Asia

The (sub-)continent of Asiaincluding related islands, the Indian subcontinentCentral Asian Republics, the Middle East and Arabia.

[edit]Central Asia

Women of the Ghilzai tribe ofPashtun people

Central Asia generally includes the landlocked region east of the Caspian Sea, south of the Russian Taiga, to the Himalayas, and extending eastwards to Mongolia and the western Chinese provinces and autonomous regions.

[edit]East Asia

East Asia generally includes the People's Republic of China, the Korean Peninsula, and the associated Pacific islands, principally Japan and Taiwan.

[edit]North Asia

North Asia generally includes the Russian Far East and the northern and eastern parts of Siberia.

[edit]South Asia

South Asia generally includes the Indian subcontinental region, the Himalayan states and related islands of the Indian Ocean.

[edit]Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia generally includes the mainland region sometimes known as Indochina, and the Malay archipelago.

[edit]Southwest Asia

Southwest Asia generally includes the region (formerly Persia) westwards of Pakistan, the Arabian peninsula, the Middle East, the LevantMesopotamia, the Caucasus region andAnatolia.

[edit]Circumpolar North

The Circumpolar North generally includes the lands surrounding the Arctic Circle.

[edit]Europe

Europe generally refers to the mass of the Eurasian peninsula westwards of the Ural Mountains, the islands of the Mediterranean and North Atlantic Ocean.

[edit]Oceania

Oceania includes most islands of the Pacific Ocean, New Guinea and the continent of Australia.

[edit]Australia

Australia includes the continental landmass, and associated islands.

[edit]Melanesian

Melanesian generally includes New Guinea and other (far-)western Pacific islands from the Arafura Sea out to Fiji.

[edit]Micronesia

Micronesia generally includes the various small island chains of the western and central Pacific.

[edit]Polynesia

Polynesia generally includes New Zealand and thus islands of the central and southern Pacific Oceans

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