haplogroup c1b4

Haplo C1b4       

14.7K C1b

http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0001764&representation=PDF
p5 has useful map

The present landscape
of extant Native American mtDNA phyletic diversity is composed
of the same major five basal haplogroups A-D plus X, but we are
now able to distinguish one to four founder sequences in each
haplogroup, adding up to ten monophyletic sub-haplogroups; A2,
B2, C1b, C1c, C1d, C4c, D1, D2a, D3 and D4h3a [15–21]
In spite of the importance of the P-TdF region, few studies of
mitochondrial DNA have been performed with current or
historical indigenous populations of the area like the Mapuche,
Pehuenche, Huilliche, Ya´mana and Kawe´sqar [9–10,22–27].
These studies show a cline north to south for the B2, C1b and
D1 haplogroups, with B2 decreasing in frequency until it
completely disappears in the extreme South in populations such
as the Ya´mana and Kawe´sqar. C1d and D1 increase their
frequencies as we move southward [23–27]. Regarding the D-loop
sequences of mtDNA, these populations have shown a high
frequency of a geographically-linked D1 haplogroup lineage
characterized by the presence of the C16187T polymorphism
(D1g, according to a report by Bodner et al., 2012 [28]), which
was recognized early as specific to the region by Forster et al.
(1996) [13]. Genetic studies of populations from the rest of South
America appear to confirm this observation, since up until now
this lineage has not been found in other Native populations from
South America [29–51].
Haplo J1e 19.4 ky (17,400 bc ?) dienekes thinks 4000

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2987219/
https://www.familytreedna.com/public/puertorricanberberancestry/
j1 and j2 related to new world sephardic jews

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:JohnLloydScharf/Haplogroup_J1_(Y-DNA)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:JohnLloydScharf/Haplogroup_J1_(Y-DNA)
http://dienekes.blogspot.com/2009/10/emergence-and-dispersal-of-haplogroup-j.html
http://www.abstractsonline.com/Plan/ViewAbstract.aspx?sKey=033f317e-adbe-4a7b-891c-ee0405066ca3&cKey=c2dc15ee-695b-4849-ab1b-a52a9da26b0e&mKey=%7B6A55B106-9C1E-4903-9B31-9FDF3C69C4D6%7D
https://www.familytreedna.com/mtDNA-Haplogroup-Mutations.aspx

http://www.worldfamilies.net/surnames/guzman/results

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