science of mind

References on determining the actual teaching of Buddha

Pruning the Bodhi Tree: The Storm over Critical Buddhism (Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press): 298–313. ISBN 0-8248-1949-7.

Full Text of Nikaya


The Way To The Beyond


Pārāyanavagga - The Way to the Beyond

(Suttanipāta Chapter 5)


Edited & Translated by

Ānandajoti Bhikkhu



Sacred Books of the East, Vol. 10: The Dhammapada and Sutta Nipata, by Max Müller and Max Fausböll, [1881], at

p. 146



Sensual pleasures are to be avoided.

   1. If he who desires sensual pleasures is successful, he certainly becomes glad-minded, having obtained what a mortal wishes for. (766)

   2. But if those sensual pleasures fail the person who desires and wishes (for them), he will suffer, pierced by the arrow (of pain). (767)

   3. He who avoids sensual pleasures as (he would avoid treading upon) the head of a snake with his foot, such a one, being thoughtful (sato), will conquer this desire. (768)

   4. He who covets extensively (such) pleasures (as these), fields, goods, or gold, cows and horses, servants, women, relations, (769)

   5. Sins will overpower him, dangers will crush him, and pain will follow him as water (pours into) a broken ship. (770)

   6. Therefore let one always be thoughtful, and avoid pleasures; having abandoned them, let him cross the stream, after baling out the ship, and go to the other shore. (771)

Kâmasutta is ended.

p. 147


Let no one cling to existence and sensual pleasures.

   1. A man that lives adhering to the cave (i.e. the body), who is covered with much (sin), and sunk into delusion, such a one is far from seclusion, for the sensual pleasures in the world are not easy to abandon. (772)

   2. Those whose wishes are their motives, those who are linked to the pleasures of the world, they are difficult to liberate, for they cannot be liberated by others, looking for what is after or what is before, coveting these and former sensual pleasures. (773)

   3. Those who are greedy of, given to, and infatuated by sensual pleasures, those who are niggardly, they, having entered upon what is wicked, wail when they are subjected to pain, saying: 'What will become of us, when we die away from here?' (774)

   4. Therefore let a man here[1] learn, whatever he knows as wicked in the world, let him not for the sake of that (?) practise (what is) wicked[2]; for short is this life, say the wise. (775)

   5. I see in the world this trembling race given to desire for existences; they are wretched men who lament in the mouth of death, not being free from the desire for reiterated existences. (776)

   6. Look upon those men trembling in selfishness, like fish in a stream nearly dried up, with little water; seeing this, let one wander about unselfish, without forming any attachment to existences. (777)

[1. Idheva = imasmim yeva sâsane. Commentator.

2. Na tassa hetu visamam kareyya.]

p. 148

   7. Having subdued his wish for both ends[1], having fully understood touch without being greedy, not doing what he has himself blamed, the wise (man) does not cling to what is seen and heard[2]. (778)

   8. Having understood name[3], let the Muni cross over the stream, not defiled by any grasping; having pulled out the arrow (of passion), wandering about strenuous, he does not wish for this world or the other. (779)

Guhatthakasutta is ended.


The Muni undergoes no censure, for he has shaken off all systems of philosophy, and is therefore independent.

   1. Verily, some wicked-minded people censure, and also just-minded people censure, but the Muni does not undergo the censure that has arisen; therefore there is not a discontented (khila) Muni anywhere. (780)

   2. How can he who is led by his wishes and possessed by his inclinations overcome his own (false) view? Doing his own doings let him talk according to his understanding[4]. (781)

   3. The person who, without being asked, praises

[1. Comp. Sallasutta, v. 9.

2. Ubhosu antesu vineyya khandam
     Phassam pariññâya anânugiddho
     Yad atta garahî tad akubbamâno
      Na lippatî ditthasutesu dhîro.

3. Saññam = nâmarûpam. Commentator.

4. Sakam hi ditthim katham akkayeyya
     Khandânunîto rukiyâ nivittho,
     Sayam samattâni pakubbamâno
     Yathâ hi gâneyya tathâ vadeyya.]

p. 149

his own virtue and (holy) works to others, him the good call ignoble, one who praises himself[1]. (782)

   4. But the Bhikkhu who is calm and of a happy mind, thus not praising himself for his virtues, him the good call noble, one for whom there are no desires anywhere in the world[2]. (783)

   5. He whose Dhammas are (arbitrarily) formed and fabricated, placed in front, and confused, because he sees in himself a good result, is therefore given to (the view which is called) kuppa-patikka-santi[3]. (?) (784)

   6. For the dogmas of philosophy are not easy to overcome, amongst the Dhammas (now this and now that) is adopted after consideration; therefore a man rejects and adopts (now this and now that) Dhamma amongst the dogmas[4]. (785)

   7. For him who has shaken off (sin) there is nowhere in the world any prejudiced view of the different existences; he who has shaken off (sin), after leaving deceit and arrogance behind, which (way) should he go, he (is) independent[6]. (786)

[1. Yo âtumânam sayam eva pâvâ = yo evam attânam sayam eva vadati. Commentator.

2. Yass' ussadâ n' atthi kuhiñki loke.

3. Pakappitâ samkhatâ yassa dhammâ
     Purakkhatâ santi avîvadâtâ
     Yad attanî passati ânisamsam
     Tam nissito kuppapatikkasantim.

4. Ditthînivesâ na hi svâtivattâ,
     Dhammesu nikkheyya samuggahîtam,
     Tasmâ naro tesu nivesanesu
     Nirassatî âdiyati-kka dhammam.
Comp. Paramatthakasutta, v. 6.

5. Dhonassa hî n' atthi kuhiñki loke
     Pakappitâ ditthi bhavâbhavesu,
     Mâyañ ka mânañ ka pahâya dhono
     Sa kena gakkheyya, anûpayo so.]

p. 150

   8. But he who is dependent undergoes censure amongst the Dhammas; with what (name) and how should one name him who is independent? For by him there is nothing grasped or rejected, he has in this world shaken off every (philosophical) view[1]. (787)

Dutthatthakasutta is ended.


No one is purified by philosophy, those devoted to philosophy run from one teacher to another, but the wise are not led by passion, and do not embrace anything in the world as the highest.

   1. I see a pure, most excellent, sound man, by his views a man's purification takes place, holding this opinion, and having seen this view to be the highest he goes back to knowledge, thinking to see what is pure[2]. (788)

   2. If a man's purification takes place by (his philosophical) views, or he by knowledge leaves pain behind, then he is purified by another (way than the ariyamagga, i.e. the noble way), together with his upadhis, on account of his views he tells him to say so[3]. (789)

[1. Upayo[*] hi dhammesu upeti vâdam
     Anûpayam kena katham vadeyya
     Attam nirattam na hi tassa atthi
     Adhosi so ditthim idh' eva sabbam.

2. Passâmi suddham paramam arogam,
     Ditthena samsuddhi narassa hoti,
     Et' âbhigânam paraman ti ñatvâ.
     Suddhânupassiti pakketi ñânam.

3. Ditthîhi nam pâva tathâ vadânam.
Comp. Garâsutta, v. l0Pasûrasutta, v. 7.

*. Upayo ti tanhâditthinissito. Commentator.]

p. 151

   3. But the Brâhmana who does not cling to what has been seen, or heard, to virtue and (holy) works, or to what has been thought, to what is good and to what is evil, and who leaves behind what has been grasped, without doing anything in this world, he does not acknowledge that purification cornes from another[1]. (790)

   4. Having left (their) former (teacher) they go to another, following their desires they do not break asunder their ties; they grasp, they let go like a monkey letting go the branch (just) after having caught (hold of it). (791)

   5. Having himself undertaken some (holy) works he goes to various (things) led by his senses, but a man of great understanding, a wise man who by his wisdom has understood the Dhamma, does not go to various (occupations). (792)

   6. He being secluded amongst all the Dhammas, whatever has been seen, heard, or thought--how should any one in this world be able to alter him, the seeing one, who wanders openly[2]? (793)

   7. They do not form (any view), they do not prefer (anything), they do not say, 'I am infinitely pure;' having cut the tied knot of attachment, they do not long for (anything) anywhere in the world. (794)

[1.Na brâhmano aññato suddhim âha
     Ditthe sute sîlavate mute vâ
     puññka pâpe ka anûpalitto
     Attañgaho na idha pakubbamâno.

2. Sa sabbadhammesu visenibhûto[*]
     Yam kiñki dittham va sutam mutam vâ
     Tam eva dassim vivatam karantam
     Ken' îdha lokasmim vikappayeyya?

*. Mârasenam vinâsetvâ thitabhâvena visenibhûto. Commentator.]

p. 152

   8. He is a Brâhmana that has conquered (sin)[1]; by him there is nothing embraced after knowing and seeing it; he is not affected by any kind of passion; there is nothing grasped by him as the highest in this world. (795)

Suddhatthakasutta is ended.


One should not give oneself to philosophical disputations; a Brâhmana who does not adopt any system of philosophy, is unchangeable, has reached Nibbâna.

   1. What one person, abiding by the (philosophical) views, saying, 'This is the most excellent,' considers the highest in the world, everything different from that he says is wretched, therefore he has not overcome dispute[2]. (796)

   2. Because he sees in himself a good result, with regard to what has been seen (or) heard, virtue and (holy) works, or what has been thought, therefore, having embraced that, he looks upon everything else as bad[3]. (797)

   3. The expert call just that a tie dependent

[1. Katunnam kilesasîmânam atîtattâ
     Sîmâtigo bâhitapâpattâ ka brâhmano.

2. Paraman ti ditthîsu paribbasâno
     Yad uttarim kurute gantu loke
     Hînâ ti aññe tato sabbam âha,
     Tasmâ vivâdâni avîtivatto.
Properly, 'others (are) wretched.'

3. Yad attanî passati ânisamsam
     Ditthe sute sîlavate mute vâ
     Tad eva so tattha samuggahâya
     Nihînato passati sabbam aññam.]

p. 153

upon which one looks upon anything else as bad. Therefore let a Bhikkhu not depend upon what is seen, heard, or thought, or upon virtue and (holy) works[1]. (798)

   4. Let him not form any (philosophical) view in this world, either by knowledge or by virtue and (holy) works, let him not represent himself equal (to others), nor think himself either low or distinguished. (799)

   5. Having left what has been grasped, not seizing upon anything he does not depend even on knowledge. He does not associate with those that are taken up by different things, he does not return to any (philosophical) view[2]. (800)

   6. For whom there is here no desire for both ends, for reiterated existence either here or in another world, for him there are no resting-places (of the mind) embraced after investigation amongst the doctrines (dhammesu)[3]. (801)

   7. ln him there is not the least prejudiced idea with regard to what has been seen, heard, or thought; how could any one in this world alter such a Brâhmana who does not adopt any view? (802)

[1. Tam vâpi gantham kusalâ vadanti
     Yam nissito passati hînam aññam,
     Tasmâ hi dittham va sutam mutam vâ
     Sîlabbatam bhikkhu na nissayeyya.

2. Attam pahâya anupâdiyâno
     Ñâne pi so nissayam no karoti,
     Sa ve viyattesu na vaggasârî,
     Ditthim pi so na pakketi kiñki.

3. Yass' ûbhayante panidhîdha n' atthi
     Bhavâbhavâya idha vâ huram vâ
     Nivesanâ tassa na santi keki
     Dhammesu nikkheyya samuggahîtâ.]

p. 154

   8. They do not form (any view), they do not prefer (anything), the Dhammas are not chosen by them, a Brâhmana is not dependent upon virtue and (holy) works; having gone to the other shore, such a one does not return. (803)

Paramatthakasutta is ended.


From selfishness come grief and avarice; The Bhikkhu who has turned away frorn the world and wanders about houseless, is independent, and does not wish for purification through another.

   1. Short indeed is this life, within a hundred years one dies, and if any one lives longer, then he dies of old age. (804)

   2. People grieve from selfishness, perpetual cares kill them, this (world) is full of disappointment; seeing this, let one not live in a house. (805)

   3. That even of which a man thinks 'this is mine' is left behind by death: knowing this, let not the wise (man) turn himself to worldliness (while being my) follower[1]. (806)

   4. As a man awakened does not see what he has met with in his sleep, so also he does not see the beloved person that has passed away and is dead. (807)

   5. Both seen and heard are the persons whose particular name is mentioned, but only the name

[1. Maranena pi tam pahîyati
     Yam puriso mama-y-idan ti maññati,
     Evam pi viditvâ pandito
     Na pamattâya nametha mâmako.]

p. 155

remains undecayed of the person that has passed away[1]. (808)

   6. The greedy in their selfishness do not leave sorrow, lamentation, and avarice; therefore the Munis leaving greediness wandered about seeing security (i.e. Nibbâna). (809)

   7. For a Bhikkhu, who wanders about unattached and cultivates the mind of a recluse, they say it is proper that he does not show himself (again) in existence[2]. (810)

   8. Under all circumstances the independent Muni does not please nor displease (any one); sorrow and avarice do not stick to him (as little) as water to a leaf. (811)

   9. As a drop of water does not stick to a lotus, as water does not stick to a lotus, so a Muni does not cling to anything, namely, to what is seen or heard or thought[3]. (812)

   10. He who has shaken off (sin) does not therefore think (much of anything) because it has been seen or heard or thought; he does not wish for

[1. Ditthâpi sutâpi te ganâ
     Yesam nâmam idam pavukkati
     Nâmam evâvasissati
     Akkheyyam petassa gantuno.

2. Patilînakarassa bhikkhuno
     Bhagamânassa vittamânasam[*]
     Sâmaggiyam âhu tassa tam
     Yo attânam bhavane na dassaye.

3. Udabindu yathâpi pokkhare
     Padume vâri yathâ na lippati
     Evam muni nôpalippati
     Yad idam dittthasutam mutesu vâ.

*. Bi has vivitta-.]

p. 156

purification through another, for he is not pleased nor displeased (with anything)[1]. (813)

Garâsutta is ended.


Sexual intercourse should be avoided.

   1. 'Tell me, O venerable one,'--so said the venerable Tissa Metteyya,--'the defeat of him who is given to sexual intercourse; hearing thy precepts we will learn in seclusion.' (814)

   2. 'The precepts of him who is given to sexual intercourse, O Metteyya,'--so said Bhagavat,--'are lost, and he employs himself wrongly, this is what is ignoble in him. (815)

   3. 'He who, having formerly wandered alone, gives himself up to sexual intercourse, him they call in the world a low, common fellow, like a rolling chariot. (816)

   4. 'What honour and renown he had before, that is lost for him; having seen this let him learn to give up sexual intercourse. (817)

   5. 'He who overcome by his thoughts meditates like a miser, such a one, having heard the (blaming) voice of others, becomes discontented. (818)

   6. 'Then he makes weapons (i.e. commits evil

[1. Dhono na hi tena maññati
     Yad idam ditthasutam mutesu vâ,
     Nâññena visuddhim ikkhati,
     Na hi so raggati no viraggati.
Comp. Suddhatthakasutta, v. 2.]

p. 157

deeds) urged by the doctrines of others, he is very greedy, and sinks into falsehood[1]. (819)

   7. 'Designated "wise" he has entered upon a solitary life, then having given himself up to sexual intercourse, he (being) a fool suffers pain. (820)

   8. 'Looking upon this as misery let the Muni from first to last in the world firmly keep to his solitary life, let him not give himself up to sexual intercourse. (821)

   9. 'Let him learn seclusion, this is the highest for noble men, but let him not therefore think himself the best, although he is verily near Nibbâna. (822)

   10. 'The Muni who wanders void (of desire), not coveting sensual pleasures, and who has crossed the stream, him the creatures that are tied in sensual pleasures envy.' (823)

Tissametteyyasutta is ended.


Disputants brand each other as fools, they wish for praise, but being repulsed they become discontented; one is not purified by dispute, but by keeping to Buddha, who has shaken off all sin.

   1. Here they maintain 'purity,' in other doctrines (dhamma) they do not allow purity; what they have devoted themselves to, that they call good, and they enter extensively upon the single truths[2]. (824)

[1. Atha satthâni kurute
     Paravâdehi kodito,
     Esa khv-assa mahâgedho,
     Mosavaggam pagâhati.

2. Idh' eya suddhim iti vâdiyanti
     Nâññesu dhammesu visuddhim âhu
     Yam nissitâ tattha subham vadânâ
     Pakkekasakkesu puthû nivitthâ.]

p. 158

   2. Those wishing for dispute, having plunged into the assembly, brand each other as fools mutually, they go to others and pick a quarrel, wishing for praise and calling themselves (the only) expert. (825)

   3. Engaged in dispute in the middle of the assembly, wishing for praise he lays about on all sides; but when his dispute has been repulsed he becomes discontented, at the blame he gets angry he who sought for the faults (of others). (826)

   4. Because those who have tested his questions say that his dispute is lost and repulsed, he laments and grieves having lost his disputes; 'he has conquered me,' so saying he wails. (827)

   5. These disputes have arisen amongst the Samanas, in these (disputes) there is (dealt) blow (and) stroke; having seen this, let him leave off disputing, for there is no other advantage in trying to get praise. (828)

   6. Or he is praised there, having cleared up the dispute in the middle of the assembly; therefore he will laugh and be elated, having won that case as he had a mind to. (829)

   7. That which is his exaltation will also be the field of his defeat, still he talks proudly and arrogantly; seeing this, let no one dispute, for the expert do not say that purification (takes place) by that[1]. (830)

   8. As a hero nourished by kingly food goes about roaring, wishing for an adversary--where he (i.e. the philosopher, Ditthigatika) is, go thou there, O

[1. Yi unnatî sâssa vighâtabûmi,
     Mânâtimânam vadate pan' eso,
     Etam pi disvâ na vivâdayetha
     Na hi tena suddhim kusalâ vadanti.
Comp. Suddhatthakasutta, v. 2.]

p. 159

hero; formerly there was nothing like this to fight against[1]. (831)

   9. Those who, having embraced a (certain philosophical) view, dispute and maintain 'this only (is) true,' to them say thou when a dispute has arisen, 'Here is no opponent[2] for thee.' (832)

   10. Those who wander about after having secluded themselves, without opposing view to view--what (opposition) wilt thou meet with amongst those, O Pasûra, by whom nothing in this world is grasped as the best? (833)

   11. Then thou wentest to reflection thinking in thy mind over the (different philosophical) views; thou hast gone into the yoke with him who has shaken off (al1 sin), but thou wilt not be able to proceed together (with him)[3]. (834)

Pasûrasutta is ended.


A dialogue between Mâgandiya and Buddha. The former offers Buddha his daughter for a wife, but Buddha refuses her. Mâgandiya says that purity cornes from philosophy, Buddha from 'inward peace.' The Muni is a confessor of peace, he does not dispute, he is free from marks.

   1. Buddha: 'Even seeing Tanhâ, Arati, and Ragâ (the daughters of Mâra), there was not the least wish

[1. Sûro yathâ râgakhâdâya puttho
     Abhigaggam eti patisûram ikkham--
     Yen' eva so tena palehi sûra,
     Pubbe va n' atthi yad idam yudhâya.

2. Patisenikattâ ti patilomakârako. Commentator.

3. Atha tvam pavitakkam âgamâ
     Manasâ ditthigatâni kintayanto,
     Dhonena yugam samâgamâ,
     Na hi tvam pagghasi sampayâtave.]

p. 160

(in me) for sexual intercourse. What is this (thy daughter's body but a thing) full of water and excrement? I do not even want to touch it with my foot.' (835)

   2. Mâgandiya: 'If thou dost not want such a pearl, a woman desired by many kings, what view, virtue, and (holy) works, (mode of) life, re-birth dost thou profess?' (836)

   3. '"This I say," so (I do now declare), after investigation there is nothing amongst the doctrines which such a one (as I would) embrace, O Mâgandiya,'-- so said Bhagavat,--'and seeing (misery) in the (philosophical) views, without adopting (any of them), searching (for truth) I saw "inward peace[1]."' (837)

   4. 'All the (philosophical) resolutions[2] that have been formed,'--so said Mâgandiya,--'those indeed thou explainest without adopting (any of them); the notion "inward peace" which (thou mentionest), how is this explained by the wise?' (838)

   5. 'Not by (any philosophical) opinion, not by tradition, not by knowledge, O Mâgandiya,'--so said Bhagavat,--'not by virtue and (holy) works can any one say that purity exists; nor by absence of (philosophical) opinion, by absence of tradition, by absence of knowledge, by absence of virtue and (holy) works either; having abandoned these without adopting (anything else), let him, calm and independent, not desire existence[3]. (839)

[1. Idam vadâmîti na tassa hoti--Mâgandiyâ ti Bhagavâ--
     Dhammesu nikkheyya samuggahîtam
     Passañ ka ditthîsu anuggahâya
     Agghattasantim pakinam adassam.

2. Vinikkhaya, placita?

3. Na ditthiyâ na sutiyâ na ñânena--Mâgandiyâ ti Bhagavâ--
     Sîlabbatenâpi na suddhim âha
     Aditthiyâ assutiyâ añânâ
     Asîlatâ abbatâ no pi tena,
     Ete ka nissagga anuggahâya
     Santo anissâya bhavam na gappe.]

p. 161

   6. 'If one cannot say by (any philosophical) opinion, or by tradition, or by knowledge,'--so said Mâgandiya,--'or by virtue and (holy) works that purity exists, nor by absence of (philosophical) opinion, by absence of tradition, by absence of knowledge, by absence of virtue and (holy) works, then I consider the doctrine foolish, for by (philosophical) opinions some return to purity.' (840)

   7. 'And asking on account of (thy philosophical) opinion, O Mâgandiya,'--so said Bhagavat,--'thou hast gone to infatuation in what thou hast embraced, and of this (inward peace) thou hast not the least idea, therefore thou holdest it foolish[1]. (841)

   8. 'He who thinks himself equal (to others), or distinguished, or low, he for that very reason disputes; but he who is unmoved under those three conditions, for him (the notions) "equal" and "distinguished" do not exist. (842)

   9. 'The Brâhmana for whom (the notions) "equal" and "unequal" do not exist, would he say, "This is true?" Or with whom should he dispute, saying, "This is false?" With whom should he enter into dispute[2]? (843)

   10. 'Having left his house, wandering about

[1. Ditthiñ ka nissâya anupukkhamâno
     Samuggahîtesu pamoham âgâ
     Ito ka nâddakkhi anum pi saññam
     Tasmâ tuvam momuhato dahâsi.

2. Sakkan ti so brâhmano kim vadeyya
     Musâ ti vâ so vivadetha kena
     Yasmim samam visamañ kâpi n' atthi
     Sa kena vâdam patisamyugeyya.]

p. 162

houseless, not making acquaintances in the village, free from lust, not desiring (any future existence), let the Muni not get into quarrelsome talk with people. (844)

   11. 'Let not an eminent man (nâga) dispute after having embraced those (views) separated from which he (formerly) wandered in the world; as the thorny lotus elambuga is undefiled by water and mud, so the Muni, the confessor of peace, free from greed, does not cling to sensual pleasures and the world. (845)

   12. 'An accomplished man does not by (a philosophical) view, or by thinking become arrogant, for he is not of that sort; not by (holy) works, nor by tradition is he to be led, he is not led into any of the resting-places (of the mind). (846)

   13. 'For him who is free from marks there are no ties, to him who is delivered by understanding there are no follies; (but those) who grasped after marks and (philosophical) views, they wander about in the world annoying (people)[1].' (847)

Mâgandiyasutta is ended.


Definition of a calm Muni.

   1. 'With what view and with what virtue is one called calm, tell me that, O Gotama, (when) asked about the best man?' (848)

   2. 'He whose desire is departed before the dissolution (of his body),'--so said Bhagavat,--'who

[1. Saññâvirattassa na santi ganthâ,
     Paññâvimuttassa na santi mohâ,
     Saññañ ka ditthiñ ka ye aggahesum
     Te ghattayantâ vikaranti loke.]

p. 163

does not depend upon beginning and end, nor reckons upon the middle, by him there is nothing preferred[1]. (849)

   3. 'He who is free from anger, free from trembling, free from boasting, free from misbehaviour, he who speaks wisely, he who is not elated, he is indeed a Muni who has restrained his speech. (850)

   4. 'Without desire for the future he does not grieve for the past, he sees seclusion in the phassas (touch), and he is not led by (any philosophical) views. (851)

   5. 'He is unattached, not deceitful, not covetous, not envious, not impudent, not contemptuous, and not given to slander. (852)

   6. 'Without desire for pleasant things and not given to conceit, and being gentle, intelligent, not credulous, he is not displeased (with anything). (853)

   7. 'Not from love of gain does he learn, and he does not get angry on account of loss, and untroubled by desire he has no greed for sweet things[2]. (854)

   8. 'Equable (upekhaka), always thoughtful, he does not think himself equal (to others)[3] in the world, nor distinguished, nor low: for him there are no desires (ussada). (855)

[1. Vîtatanho purâ bhedâ
     Pubbam antam anissito
     Vemagghe n' ûpasamkheyyo
     Tassa n' atthi purekkhatam.

2. Rasesu nânugigghati

3. Na loke maññate samam
     Na visesî na nîkeyyo.
Compare Tuvatakasutta, v. 4Attadandasutta, v. 20.]

p. 164

   9. 'The man for whom there is nothing upon which he depends, who is independent, having understood the Dhamma, for whom there is no desire for coming into existence or leaving existence, (856)

   10. 'Him I call calm, not looking for sensual pleasures; for him there are no ties, he has overcome desire. (857)

   11. 'For him there are no sons, cattle, fields, wealth, nothing grasped or rejected is to be found in him, (858)

   12. 'That fault of which common people and Samanas and Brâhmanas say that he is possessed, is not possessed by him, therefore he is not moved by their talk. (859)

   13. 'Free from covetousness, without avarice, the Muni does not reckon himself amongst the distinguished, nor amongst the plain, nor amongst the low, he does not enter time, being delivered from time[1]. (860)

   14. 'He for whom there is nothing in the world (which he may call) his own, who does not grieve over what is no more, and does not walk amongst the Dhammas (after his wish), he is called calm[2].' (861)

Purâbhedasutta is ended.


The origin of contentions, disputes, &c. &c.

   1. 'Whence (do spring up) contentions and disputes, lamentation and sorrow together with envy;

[1. Vîtagedho amakkharî
     Na ussesu vadate muni
     Na samesu na omesu,
     Kappam n' eti akappiyo.

2. Comp. infra, Attadandasutta, v. 16, and Dhp. v. 367.]

p. 165

and arrogance and conceit together with slander, whence do these spring up? pray, tell me this.' (862)

   2. 'From dear (objects) spring up contentions and disputes, lamentation and sorrow together with envy; arrogance and conceit together with slander; contentions and disputes are joined with envy, and there is slander in the disputes arisen.' (863)

   3. 'The dear (objects) in the world whence do they originate, and (whence) the covetousness that prevails in the world, and desire and fulfilment whence do they originate, which are (of consequence) for the future state of a man[1]?' (864)

   4. 'From wish[2] originate the dear (objects) in the world, and the covetousness that prevails in the world, and desire and fulfilment originate from it, which are (of consequence) for the future state of a man.' (865)

   5. 'From what has wish in the world its origin, and resolutions[3] whence do they spring, anger and falsehood and doubt, and the Dhammas which are made known by the Samana (Gotama)?' (866)

   6. 'What they call pleasure and displeasure in the world, by that wish springs up; having seen decay and origin in (all) bodies[4], a person forms (his) resolutions in the world. (867)

   7. 'Anger and falsehood and doubt, these Dhammas are a couple[5]; let the doubtful learn in the way of knowledge, knowingly the Dhammas have been proclaimed by the Samana.' (868)

   8. 'Pleasure and displeasure, whence have they

[1. Ye samparâyâya narassa honti.

2. Khanda.

3. Vinikkhaya.

4. Rûpesu disvâ vibhavam bhavañ ka.

5. Te pi kodhâdayo dhammâ sâtâsâtadvaye sante eva pahonti uppagganti. Commentator.]

p. 166

their origin, for want of what do these not arise? This notion which (thou mentionest), viz. "decay and origin," tell me from what does this arise.' (869)

   9. 'Pleasure and displeasure have their origin from phassa (touch), when there is no touch they do not arise. This notion which (thou mentionest), viz. "decay and origin," this I tell thee has its origin from this.' (870)

   10. 'From what has phassa its origin in the world and from what does grasping spring up? For want of what is there no egotism, by the cessation of what do the touches not touch? ' (871)

   11. 'On account of name and form the touches (exist), grasping has its origin in wish; by the cessation of wishes there is no egotism, by the cessation of form the touches do not touch.' (872)

   12. 'How is one to be constituted that (his) form may cease to exist, and how do joy and pain cease to exist? Tell me this, how it ceases, that we should like to know, such was my mind[1]?' (873)

   13. 'Let one not be with a natural consciousness, nor with a mad consciousness, nor without consciousness, nor with (his) consciousness gone; for him who is thus constituted form ceases to exist, for what is called delusion has its origin in consciousness[2].' (?) (874)

   14. 'What we have asked thee thou hast explained

[1. Katham sametassa vibhoti rûpam,
     Sukham dukham vâpi katham vibhoti,
     Etam me pabrûhi, yathâ vibhoti
     Tam gâniyâma, iti me mano ahû.

2. Na sannasaññî na visannasaññî
     No pi asaññî na vibhûtasaññî
     Evam sametassa vibhoti rûpam
     Saññânidânâ hi papañkasamkhâ.]

p. 167

unto us; we will ask thee another question, answer us that: Do not some (who are considered) wise in this world tell us that the principal (thing) is the purification of the yakkha, or do they say something different from this[1]?' (875)

   15. 'Thus some (who are considered) wise in this world say that the principal (thing) is the purification of the yakkha; but some of them say samaya (annihilation), the expert say (that the highest purity lies) in anupâdisesa (none of the five attributes remaining)[2]. (876)

   16. 'And having known these to be dependent, the investigating Muni, having known the things we depend upon, and after knowing them being liberated, does not enter into dispute, the wise (man) does not go to reiterated existence[3].' (877)

Kalahavivâdasutta is ended.


A description of disputing philosophers. The different schools of philosophy contradict each other, they proclaim different truths, but the truth is only one. As long as the disputations are going on, so long will there be strife in the world.

   1. Abiding by their own views, some (people), having got into contest, assert themselves to be

[1. Comp. Sundarikabhâradvâgasutta, v. 25.

2. Ettâvat' aggam pi vadanti h' eke
     Yakkhassa suddhim idha panditâse,
     Tesam pun' eke samayam[*] vadanti
     Anupâdisese kusalâ vadânâ.

3. Ete kñatvâ upanissitâ ti
     Ñatvâ munî nissaye so vimam
     Ñatvâ vimutto na vivâdam eti
     Bhavâbhavâya na sameti dhîro.

*. Ukkhedam. Commentator.]

p. 168

the (only) expert (saying), '(He) who understands this, he knows the Dhamma; he who reviles this, he is not perfect[1].' (878)

   2. So having got into contest they dispute: 'The opponent (is) a fool, an ignorant (person),' so they say. Which one of these, pray, is the true doctrine (vâda)? for all these assert themselves (to be the only) expert. (879)

   3. He who does not acknowledge an opponent's doctrine (dhamma), he is a fool, a beast, one of poor understanding, all are fools with a very poor understanding; all these abide by their (own) views. (880)

   4. They are surely purified by their own view, they are of a pure understanding, expert, thoughtful, amongst them there is no one of poor understanding, their view is quite perfect! (881)

   5. I do not say, 'This is the reality,' which fools say mutually to each other; they made their own views the truth, therefore they hold others to be fools. (882)

   6. What some say is the truth, the reality, that others say is void, false, so having disagreed they dispute. Why do not the Samanas say one (and the same thing)? (883)

   7. For the truth is one, there is not a second, about which one intelligent man might dispute with another intelligent man; (but) they themselves praise different truths, therefore the Samanas do not say one and the same thing)[2]. (884)

[1. Sakam sakam ditthi paribbasânâ
     Viggayha nânâ kusalâ vadanti
     Yo evam gânâti sa vedi dhammam
     Idam patikkosam akevalî so.

2. Ekam hi sakkam na dutîyam atthi
     Yasmim pagâno vivade pagânam,
     Nânâ te sakkâni sayam thunanti,
     Tasmâ na ekam samanâ vadanti.]

p. 169

   8. Why do the disputants that assert themselves (to be the only) expert, proclaim different truths? Have many different truths been heard of, or do they (only) follow (their own) reasoning? (885)

   9. There are not many different truths in the world, no eternal ones except consciousness; but having reasoned on the (philosophical) views they proclaim a double Dhamma, truth and falsehood[1]. (886)

   10. In regard to what has been seen, or heard, virtue and (holy) works, or what has been thought, and on account of these (views) looking (upon others) with contempt, standing in (their) resolutions joyful, they say that the opponent is a fool and an ignorant person[2] (?) (887)

   11. Because he holds another (to be) a fool, therefore he calls himself expert, in his own opinion he is one that tells what is propitious, others he blames, so he said[3]. (?) (888)

   12. He is full of his overbearing (philosophical) view, mad with pride, thinking himself perfect, he is in his own opinion anointed with the spirit (of genius), for his (philosopbical) view is quite complete. (889)

[1. Na h' evâ sakkâni bahûni nânâ
     Aññatra saññâya nikkâni loke,
     Takkañ ka ditthisu pakappayitvâ
     Sakkam musâ ti dvayadhammam âhu.

2. Ditthe sute sîlavate mute vâ
     Ete ka nissâya vimânadassî
     Vinikkhaye thatvâ pahassamânâ
     Bâlo paro akusalo ti kâhu.

3. Yen' eva bâlo ti param dahâti
     Tenâtumânam kusalo ti kâha,
     Sayam attanâ sa kusalâ vadâno
     Aññam vimâneti, tath' eva pâva.]

p. 170

   13. If he according to another's report is low, then (he says) the other is also of a low understanding, and if he himself is accomplished and wise, there is not any fool amongst the Samanas[1]. (890)

   14. 'Those who preach a doctrine (dhamma) different from this, fall short of purity and are imperfect,' so the Titthiyas say repeatedly, for they are inflamed by passion for their own (philosophical) views. (891)

   15. Here they maintain purity, in other doctrines (dhamma) they do not allow purity; so the Titthiyas, entering extensively (upon details), say that in their own way there is something firm. (892)

   16. And saying that there is something firm in his own way he holds his opponent to be a fool; thus he himself brings on strife, calling his opponent a fool and impure (asuddhadhamma). (893)

   17. Standing in (his) resolution, having himself measured (teachers, &c.), he still more enters into dispute in the world; but having left all resolutions nobody will excite strife in the world[2]. (894)

Kûlaviyûhasutta is ended.

[1. Parassa ke hi vakasâ nihîno
     Tumo[*] sahâ hoti nihînapañño,
     Atha ke sayam vedagu hoti dhîro
     Na koki bâlo samanesû atthi.

2. Vinikkhaye thatvâ sayam pamâya
     Uddham so lokasmim vivâdam eti,
     Hitvâna sabbâni vinikkhayâni
     Na medhakam kurute gantu loke.

*. So pi ten' eva. Commentator. Ved. tva (?).]

p. 171


Philosophers cannot lead to purity, they only praise themselves and stigmatise others. But a Brâhmana has overcome all dispute, he is indifferent to learning, he is appeased.

   1. Those who abiding in the (philosophical) views dispute, saying, 'This is the truth,' they all incur blame, and they also obtain praise in this matter. (895)

   2. This is little, not enough to (bring about) tranquillity, I say there are two fruits of dispute; having seen this let no one dispute, understanding Khema (i.e. Nibbâna) to be the place where there is no dispute. (896)

   3. The opinions that have arisen amongst people, all these the wise man does not embrace; he is independent. Should he who is not pleased with what has been seen and heard resort to dependency[1]? (?) (897)

   4. Those who consider virtue the highest of all, say that purity is associated with restraint; having taken upon themselves a (holy) work they serve. Let us learn in this (view), then, his (the Master's) purity; wishing for existence they assert themselves to be the only expert[2]. (898)

   5. If he falls off from virtue and (holy) works, he trembles, having missed (his) work; he laments, he

[1. Yâ kâk' imâ sammutiyo puthuggâ
     Sabbâ va etâ na upeti vidvâ,
     Anûpayo so, upayam kim eyya
     Ditthe sute khantim[*] akubbamâno?

2. Sîluttamâ saññamenâhu suddhim,
     Vatam samâdâya upatthitâse,
     Idh' eva sikkhema ath' assa suddhim,
     Bhavûpanîtâ kusalâ vadânâ.

*. So all the MSS.]

p. 172

prays for purity in this world, as one who has lost his caravan or wandered away from his house. (899)

   6. Having left virtue and (holy) works altogether, and both wrong and blameless work, not praying for purity or impurity, he wanders abstaining (from both purity and impurity), without having embraced peace. (900)

   7. By means of penance, or anything disliked, or what has been seen, or heard, or thought, going upwards they wail for what is pure, without being free from desire for reiterated existence. (901)

   8. For him who wishes (for something there always are) desires[1], and trembling in (the midst of his) plans; he for whom there is no death and no re-birth, how can he tremble or desire anything? (902)

   9. What some call the highest Dhamma, that others again call wretched; which one of these, pray, is the true doctrine (vâda)? for all these assert themselves (to be the only) expert. (903)

   10. Their own Dhamma they say is perfect, another's Dhamma again they say is wretched; so having disagreed they dispute, they each say their own opinions (are) the truth. (904)

   11. If one (becomes) low by another's censure, then there will be no one distinguished amongst the Dhammas; for they all say another's Dhamma (is) low, in their own they say there is something firm[2]. (905)

[1. Gappitâni.

2. Parassa ke vamhayitena hîno
     Na koki dhammesu visesi assa,
     Puthû hi aññassa vadanti dhammam
     Nihînato samhi dalham vadânâ.]

p. 173

   12. The worshipping of their own Dhamma is as great as their praise of their own ways; all schools would be in the same case, for their purity is individual[1]. (906)

   13. There is nothing about a Brâhmana dependent upon others, nothing amongst the Dhammas which he would embrace after investigation; therefore he has overcome the disputes, for he does not regard any other Dhamma as the best. (907)

   14. 'I understand, I see likewise this,' so saying, some by (their philosophical) views return to purity. If he saw purity, what then (has been effected) by another's view? Having conquered they say that purity exists by another[2]. (?) (908)

   15. A seeing man will see name and form, and having seen he will understand those (things); let him at pleasure see much or little, for the expert do not say that purity exists by that. (909)

   16. A dogmatist is no leader to purity, being guided by prejudiced views, saying that good consists in what he is given to, and saying that purity is there, he saw the thing so[3]. (910)

   17. A Brâhmana does not enter time, (or) the

[1. Sadhammapûgâ ka panâ tath' eva
     Yathâ pasamsanti sakâyanâni,
     Sabbe pavâdâ tath' ivâ bhaveyyum
     Suddhi hi nesam pakkattam eva.

2. Gânâmi passâmi tath' eva etam
     ditthiyâ eke pakkenti suddhim
     Addakkhi ke kim hi tumassa tena
     Atisitvâ aññena vadanti suddhim.

3. Nivissavâdî na hi suddhinâyo
     Pakappitâ ditthi purekkharâno
     Yam nissito tattha subham vadâno
     Suddhim vado tattha, tath' addasâ so.]

p. 174

number (of living beings), (he is) no follower of (philosophical) views, nor a friend of knowledge; and having penetrated the opinions that have arisen amongst people, he is indifferent to learning, while others acquire it. (911)

   18. The Muni, having done away with ties here in the world, is no partisan in the disputes that have arisen; appeased amongst the unappeased he is indifferent, not embracing learning, while others acquire it. (912)

   19. Having abandoned his former passions, not contracting new ones, not wandering according to his wishes, being no dogmatist, he is delivered from the (philosophical) views, being wise, and he does not cling to the world, neither does he blame himself. (913)

   20. Being secluded amongst all the doctrines (dhamma), whatever has been seen, heard, or thought, he is a Muni who has laid down his burden and is liberated, not belonging to time (na kappiyo), not dead, not wishing for anything. So said Bhagavat. (914)

Mahâviyûhasutta is ended.


How a Bhikkhu attains bliss, what his duties are, and what he is to avoid.

   1. 'I ask thee, who art a kinsman of the Âdikkas and a great Isi, about seclusion (viveka) and the state of peace. How is a Bhikkhu, after having seen it, extinguished, not grasping at anything in the world?' (915)

p. 175

   2. 'Let him completely cut off the root of what is called papañka[1] (delusion), thinking "I am wisdom;"'--so said Bhagavat,--'all the desires that arise inwardly, let him learn to subdue them, always being thoughtful. (916)

   3. 'Let him learn every Dhamma inwardly or outwardly; let him not therefore be proud, for that is not called bliss by the good. (917)

   4. 'Let him not therefore think himself better (than others or) low or equal (to others); questioned by different people, let him not adorn himself[2]. (918)

   5. 'Let the Bhikkhu be appeased inwardly, let him not seek peace from any other (quarter); for him who is inwardly appeased there is nothing grasped or rejected. (919)

   6. 'As in the middle (i.e. depth) of the sea no wave is born, (but as it) remains still[3], so let the Bhikkhu be still[3], without desire, let him not desire anything whatever.' (920)

   7. He with open eyes expounded clearly the Dhamma that removes (all) dangers; tell (now) the religious practices; the precepts or contemplation[4]. (921)

   8. Bhagavat: 'Let him not be greedy with his eyes, let him keep his ears from the talk of the town, let him not be greedy after sweet things, and let him not desire anything in the world. (922)

   9. 'When he is touched by the touch (of illness),

[1. Aviggâdayo kilesâ. Commentator.

2. Nâtumânam vikappayan titthe.

3. Thito.

4. Akittayi vivatakakkhu sakkhi
     Dhammam parissayavinayam,
     Patipadam vadehi, bhaddan te,
     Pâtimokkham athavâpi samâdhim.]

p. 176

let the Bhikkhu not lament, and let him not wish for existence anywhere, and let him not tremble at dangers. (923)

   10. 'Having obtained boiled rice and drink, solid food and clothes, let him not store up (these things), and let him not be anxious, if he does not get them. (924)

   11. 'Let him be meditative, not prying, let him abstain from misbehaviour[1], let him not be indolent, let the Bhikkhu live in his quiet dwelling. (925)

   12. 'Let him not sleep too much, let him apply himself ardently to watching, let him abandon sloth, deceit, laughter, sport, sexual intercourse, and adornment. (926)

   13. 'Let him not apply himself to practising (the hymns of) the Âthabbana(-veda), to (the interpretation of) sleep and signs, nor to astrology; let not (my) follower (mâmaka) devote himself to (interpreting) the cry of birds, to causing impregnation, nor to (the art of) medicine. (927)

   14. 'Let the Bhikkhu not tremble at blame, nor puff himself up when praised; let him drive off covetousness together with avarice, anger, and slander. (928)

   15. 'Let the Bhikkhu not be engaged in purchase and sale, let him not blame others in anything, let him not scold in the village, let him not from love of gain speak to people. (929)

   16. 'Let not the Bhikkhu be a boaster, and let him not speak coherent[2] language; let him not learn pride, let him not speak quarrelsome language. (930)

[1. Virame kukkukkam.

2. Payuta; comp. Nâlakasutta, v. 33.]

p. 177

   17. 'Let him not be led into falsehood, let him not consciously do wicked things; and with respect to livelihood, understanding, virtue, and (holy) works let him not despise others. (931)

   18. 'Having heard much talk from much-talking Samanas let him not irritated answer them with harsh language; for the good do not thwart[1] others. (932)

   19. 'Having understood this Dhamma, let the investigating and always thoughtful Bhikkhu learn; having conceived bliss to consist in peace, let him not be indolent in Gotama's commandments. (933)

   20. 'For he a conqueror unconquered saw the Dhamma visibly, without any traditional instruction[2]; therefore let him learn, heedful in his, Bhagavat's, commandments, and always worshipping.' (934)

Tuvatakasutta is ended.


Description of an accomplished Muni.

   1. From him who has seized a stick fear arises. Look at people killing (each other); I will tell of grief as it is known to me. (935)

   2. Seeing people struggling like fish in (a pond with) little water, seeing them obstructed by each other, a fear came over me. (936)

   3. The world is completely unsubstantial, all quarters are shaken; wishing for a house for myself I did not see (one) uninhabited. (937)

   4. But having seen (all beings) in the end obstructed, discontent arose in me; then I saw in

[1. Patisenikaronti.

2. Sakkhi dhammam anîtiham adassî.]

p. 178

this world an arrow, difficult to see, stuck in the heart. (938)

   5. He who has been pierced by this arrow runs through all quarters; but having drawn out that arrow, he will not run, he will sit down (quietly). (939)

   6. There (many) studies are gone through; what is tied in the world let him not apply himself to (untie) it; having wholly transfixed desire, let him learn his own extinction (nibbâna). (940)

   7. Let the Muni be truthful, without arrogance, undeceitful, free from slander, not angry, let him overcome avarice. (941)

   8. Let the man who has turned his mind to Nibbâna conquer sleepiness, drowsiness, and sloth; let him not live together with indolence, let him not indulge in conceit. (942)

   9. Let him not be led into falsehood, let him not turn his affection to form; let him penetrate arrogance, let him wander abstaining from violence. (943)

   10. Let him not delight in what is old, let him not bear with what is new, let him not grieve for what is lost, let him not give himself up to desire[1]. (944)

   11. (This desire) I call greed, the great stream, I call (it) precipitation, craving, a trouble, a bog of lust difficult to cross[2]. (945)

   12. The Muni who without deviating from truth

[1. Âkâsam na sito siyâ ti tanham nissito na bhaveyya. Commentator.

2. Gedham brûmi mahogho ti
     Âgavam brûmi gappanam
     Ârammanam pakappanam
     Kâmapamko durakkayo.]

p. 179

stands fast on the firm ground (of Nibbâna, being) a Brâhmana, he, having forsaken everything, is indeed called calm. (946)

   13. He indeed is wise, he is accomplished, having understood the Dhamma independent (of everything); wandering rightly in the world he does not envy any one here. (947)

   14. Whosoever has here overcome lust, a tie difficult to do away with in the world, he does not grieve, he does not covet[1], having cut off the stream, and being without bonds. (948)

   15. What is before (thee), lay that aside; let there be nothing behind thee; if thou wilt not grasp after what is in the middle, thou wilt wander calm[2]. (949)

   16. The man who has no desire at all for name and form (individuality) and who does not grieve over what is no more, he indeed does not decay in the world[3]. (950)

   17. He who does not think, 'this is mine' and 'for others there is also something,' he, not having egotism, does not grieve at having nothing[4]. (951)

   18. Not being harsh, not greedy, being without desire, and being the same under all circumstances (samo[5]),--that I call a good result, when asked about an undaunted man. (952)

   19. For him who is free from desire, for the

[1. Nâggheti = nâbhigghati (read nâbhigghâyati). Commentator.

2. Comp. infra, Gatukannin's question, v. 4, and Dhammapada, p. 308.

3. Comp. infra, Gatukannin's question, v. 5.

4. Yassa n'atthi 'idam me' ti
     'Paresam vâpi kiñkanam'
     Mamattam so asamvindam
     'N' atthi me' ti na sokati.

5. = upekhako. Commentator.]

p. 180

discerning (man) there is no Samkhâra; abstaining from every sort of effort he sees happiness everywhere[1]. (953)

   20. The Muni does not reckon himself amongst the plain, nor amongst the low, nor amongst the distinguished; being calm and free from avarice, he does not grasp after nor reject anything[2]. (954)

Attadandasutta is ended.


On Sâriputta asking what a Bhikkhu is to devote himself to, Buddha shows what life he is to lead.

   1. 'Neither has before been seen by me,'--so said the venerable Sâriputta,--'nor has any one heard of such a beautifully-speaking master, a teacher arrived from the Tusita heaven. (955)

   2. 'As he, the clearly-seeing, appears to the world of men and gods, after having dispelled all darkness, so he wanders alone in the midst (of people). (956)

   3. 'To this Buddha, who is independent, unchanged, a guileless teacher, who has arrived (in the world), I have come supplicatingly with a question[3] from many who are bound in this world. (957)

   4. 'To a Bhikkhu who is loath (of the world) and affects an isolated seat, the root of a tree or a cemetery, or (who lives) in the caves of the mountains, (958)

[1. Anegassa vigânato
     N' atthi kâki nisamkhiti,
     Virato so viyârambhâ
     Khemam passati sabbadhi.

2. Comp. supra, Purâbhedasutta, vv. 15, 20 {sic., vv. 813}.

3. Atthi pañhena âgamim = atthiko pañhena âgato 'mhîti atthikânam vâ pañhena atthi âgamanañ kâ ti. Commentator.]

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   5. 'How many dangers (are there not) in these various dwelling-places at which the Bhikkhu does not tremble in his quiet dwelling! (959)

   6. 'How many dangers (are there not) in the world for him who goes to the immortal region[1], (dangers) which the Bhikkhu overcomes in his distant dwelling! (960)

   7. 'Which are his words, which are his objects in this world, which are the virtue and (holy) works of the energetic Bhikkhu? (961)

   8. 'What study having devoted himself to, intent on one object[2], wise and thoughtful, can he blow off his own filth as the smith (blows off) that of the silver[3]?' (962)

   9. 'What is pleasant for him who is disgusted (with birth, &c.), O Sâriputta,'--so said Bhagavat,--'if he cultivates a lonely dwelling-place, and loves perfect enlightenment in accordance with the Dhamma, that I will tell thee as I understand it. (963)

   10. 'Let not the wise and thoughtful Bhikkhu wandering on the borders[4] be afraid of the five dangers: gad-flies and (all other) flies[5], snakes, contact with (evil) men[6], and quadrupeds. (964)

   11. 'Let him not be afraid of adversaries[7], even having seen many dangers from them; further he

[1. Gakkhato amatam disam.

2. Ekodi = ekaggakitto. Commentator.

3. Comp. Dhp. v. 239.

4. Pariyantakâri.

5. Damsâdhipâtânan ti pingalamakkhikânañ ka sesamakkhikânañ ka, sesamakkhikâ hi tato adhipatitvâ khâdanti, tasmâ adhipâtâ ti vukkanti. Commentator.

6. Manussaphassânan ti korâdiphassânam. Commentator.

7. Paradhammikânam.]

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will overcome other dangers while seeking what is good. (965)

   12. 'Touched by sickness and hunger let him endure cold and excessive heat, let him, touched by them in many ways, and being houseless, make strong exertions. (966)

   13. 'Let him not commit theft, let him not speak falsely, let him touch friendly what is feeble or strong, what he acknowledges to be the agitation of the mind, let him drive that off as a partisan of Kanha (i.e. Mâra). (967)

   14. 'Let him not fall into the power of anger and arrogance; having dug up the root of these, let him live, and let him overcome both what is pleasant and what is unpleasant. (968)

   15. 'Guided by wisdom, taking delight in what is good, let him scatter those dangers, let him overcome discontent in his distant dwelling, let him overcome the four causes of lamentation. (969)

   16. 'What shall I eat, or where shall I eat?--he lay indeed uncomfortably (last night)--where shall I lie this night? let the Sekha who wanders about houseless subdue these lamentable doubts. (970)

   17. 'Having had in (due) time both food and clothes, let him know moderation in this world for the sake of happiness; guarded in these (things) and wandering restrained in the village let him, even (if he be) irritated, not speak harsh words. (971)

   18. 'Let him be with down-cast eyes, and not prying, devoted to meditation, very watchful; having acquired equanimity let him with a composed mind cut off the seat of doubt, and misbehaviour. (972)

   19. 'Urged on by words (of his teachers) let him be thoughtful and rejoice (at this urging), let

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him break stubbornness in his fellow-students, let him utter propitious words and not unseasonable, let him not think detractingly of others. (973)

   20. 'And then the five impurities in the world, the subjection of which he must learn thoughtfully,--let him overcome passion for form, sound and taste, smell and touch. (974)

   21. 'Let the Bhikkhu subdue his wish for these Dhammas and be thoughtful, and with his mind well liberated, then in time he will, reflecting upon Dhamma, and having become intent upon one object, destroy darkness.' So said Bhagavat. (975)

Sâriputtasutta is ended.

Atthakavagga, the fourth.

early buddhist texts

Reflections on benefits of meditation as Buddha thought

There are several ways to analyze what the Buddha taught. Walpola Rahula's book is pretty complete. In biblical studies determining the sources from the bible is called a "source critical approach"

The question is whether to call "what the Buddha taught" meditation or religion. Vipassana is the theravedan approach. To see reality for what it is. Whether awareness of breath or sensation, this technique uses observation to tame the subconscious impulses.

I wonder whether observation is where it ends. Gautama said "there is nothing in the clenched fist of the teacher", rejecting esotericism.

Yet we see humans who meditate for long periods of time who do not seem to show spiritual enlightenment beyond a basic level. Still cross or irritable at times, or simply depressed. What of energized enthuthiasm, jollity, development of abilities. Does the practice start and end with observation? 

The greatest benefit I have recieved is to recognize irrational thought structures when they rise up in me, and to release them, not let them take me over. So if I continued a lot of benefits are still to be obtained. Every memory associated with discomfort or craving would gradually loosen its hold on my mind, theoretically freeing me. 

Yet without chasing the high, the craving, a certain gloominess or apathy can seem to loom at times. What is the point?   

What texts are authoritative?

The teachings of the Buddha spread North East via Tibet and Central Asia to China and the Far East, the mahayana branches, and they spread south east, to Ceylon and South East Asia, the theravedan school.

The oldest surviving manuscripts are the Gandhara collection.

The writings that can be found in both China (Mahayana) and Sri Lanka (Theraveda) and have the greatest likelihood of being as close as we can get to knowing what the Buddha taught are as follows:

sutta nipata - parayana vagga and atthaka vagga are very old indeed.
W. Alexander Hagen,
Nov 29, 2014, 12:45 PM
W. Alexander Hagen,
Nov 29, 2014, 12:45 PM