mt dna t2 and t2a1


Also found in assyrian and armenians in addition to Hungary Croatia Isle of Ist...

T2a dates to ∼17 ka ago and appears to have originated in the Near East and spread to Europe in several waves of dispersal. Its major subclade, T2a1, dates to ∼14.5 ka ago and divides into two further subclades, T2a1a (∼6 ka ago) and T2a1b (∼13.5 ka ago), which appear likely to have entered Europe during the Neolithic and the Late Glacial periods, respectively. Only T2a1b is detectable in HVS-I data; it has a patchy distribution, being mainly distributed around the Mediterranean but also in parts of northern and eastern Europe (Figure S3). Its HVS-I network suggests a possible dispersal from Europe back into the Near East ∼7–8 ka ago.

Late Glacial recolonization of Europe

Haplogroups T* (perhaps T1a) and T2b have been found in skeletons from late Mesolithic hunter-gatherers respectively from Russia and Sweden. It is the best evidence so far that haplogroup T was present in Europe before the continent was recolonised by Neolithic farmers. However since the samples are contemporary to Neolithic cultures in the rest of Europe, it is not certain that T lineages didn't come through intermarriages between farmers and hunter-gatherers.

Pala et al. (2012)

suggested that some J and T lineages recolonised Europe from the Near Eastern refugia during the Epipaleolithic, following the end of the last glaciation and the melting of the icecaps covering central and northern Europe. They hypothetize that T1a1, T2a1b, T2b, T2e and T2f1 entered Europe from Anatolia in the Late Glacial period, while T2b and T2e followed in the immediate postglacial period from 11,000 years ago. Many of these lineages would have settled at at first in Southeast Europe. They would later have been diffused around Europe by Neolithic agriculturalists after intermingling with the inhabitants of Southeast Europe. The paternal haplogroups corresponding to these lineages might have been E-V13and J2b, two haplogroups thought to have settled in Southeast Europe in the Late Glacial or immediate postglacial period too. Contacts between tribes of European hunter-gatherers would have allowed T lineages to join Y-haplogroups I1, I2 andR1a during the Mesolithic period.