Framco Cantabrian H3 and I2a1 M26

What practices did the g2a2a2 bring with them and what gods?

Sardinia Colonization zones

G2a - Lydian/Aegean

I2a1a M-26 - Spain

R1B - Bronze Age Heralds of Nuraghic

As shown in figure 2, the ages of H1 and H3 leave open the possibility that both were also present in Sardinia prior to the Neolithic. Notably, the frequency of H3 in Sardinia (18.4%) is the highest reported till now, and haplogroup H3 harbors a very peculiar geographical distribution. The highest frequencies are in western Mediterranean (Sardinians, Basques and other Iberians), with a sharp decrease towards Central and Eastern Europe and only very few occurrences in the Near East (fig. 4; supplementary table S9, Supplementary Material online), which founder analyses explain as recent incursions. Given that the population size trends for the Sardinian H3 mtDNAs indicate an expansion beginning between 9.0 and 10.5 Kya (fig. 4), it is tempting to link such an expansion to a pre-Neolithic arrival and diffusion of H3 on the island, most likely from a Western Mediterranean source, as previously suggested (Achilli et al. 2004; Torroni et al. 2006; Soares et al. 2010), possibly the same ancestral source of the ancestors of U5b1i1 and Y-chromosome haplogroup I2a1a1-M26 (Francalacci et al. 2015).

Fig. 4

Spatial frequency distribution map of haplogroup H3. Dots indicate the geographic locations of the surveyed populations. Population frequencies (%) are provided in supplementary table S9, Supplementary Material online. We constructed spatial frequency ...