Western Mystical Tradition Canaani Phoenicia Dilmun
* * *
Closest relations to biblical jews?
Notes from the pagan origins of Judaism
Ugarit texts and psalms
First, The canaanites, which were a larger group of tribes of which the Israelites were a branch, lived under Egyptian rule while in Lebanon and Israel, so it is possible the captivity is a combination of a smaller group, which undoubtedly would have happened. The Egyptians would have captured Jews/Hebrews amongst the conflicts they had with the Canaanites. Some of them would have been taken back to Egypt. So the story could combine stories of the period of Egyptian domination. Also, since the Jews allready lived in the promised land, how long ago are we talking about? Why do the Jews lack the recollection of Dilmun, other than as a possible origin of Eden.
The Jews story of captivity in Egypt has an interesting possible interpretation:
Phoenician and Hebrew were indistinguishable until around 1050 BC
The Torah reviews Phoenicia as a respectable country.
The predecessor to Greek Civilization was certainly the development of the Mediterranean as a Phoenician Lake - from 1000 BC until 570 when the Persian Achaemanid dynasty captured Tyre.
The Canaani claim a heritage from Bahrain. The epicenter of the Bronze Age Kingdoms(s) of Dilmun,
Melqart is likely to have been the particular Ba‘al found in the Tanakh (the Jewish Bible, specifically in 1 Kings 16.31–10.26) whose worship was prominently introduced to Israel by King Ahab and largely eradicated by King Jehu. In 1 Kings 18.27, it is possible that there is a mocking reference to legendary Heraclean journeys made by the god and to the annual egersis ("awakening") of the god:
And it came to pass at noon that Elijah mocked them and said, "Cry out loud: for he is a god; either he is lost in thought, or he has wandered away, or he is on a journey, or perhaps he is sleeping and must be awakened."
The Hellenistic novelist, Heliodorus of Emesa, in his Aethiopica, refers to the dancing of sailors in honor of the Tyrian Heracles: "Now they leap spiritedly into the air, now they bend their knees to the ground and revolve on them like persons possessed".
The historian Herodotus recorded (2.44):
The Hebrew Prophecy's and Occult Pronouncements
That the Holy Spirit Left Israel
A photograph shared on "The Wolf of Baghdad" Facebook page shows the Isaacs family in Baghdad, 1927. Photo by Facebook/BaghdadiWolf.
Askenazic Jews contain only 3% middle eastern DNA. They are not "returning" !
So, where were we?.. Oh, yea. We just finished the point that during the Chalcolithic and the Early Bronze Age periods (roughly between 4000 and 2000 BCE), there was a masive migration of Iranian and Anatolian populations into the Levant, which completely changing the DNA pool of the area. Making it very different from what it was during the Natufian and Neolithic periods (roughly between 12,500 and 4,500 BCE) - which you (purposly, I guess) chose to sample in your new paper… In fact, it was so different that even the veteran population of an old Canaanite settelment like Sidon, which had a continuity of being setteled & populated since the Neolithic period, already had about 52% of Iranian related ancestry…
That’s almost 3 X times more “Iranian related ancestry” than the Arab-Palestinian population of the Levant today, acording to you…
As you remember:
“Haber et al.26 suggested that the Canaanite Levant Bronze Age population from the site of Sidon, Lebanon (~1700 BCE) could be modeled as a mixture of the same two groups albeit in different proportions (48% Levant Neolithic-related and 52% Iran Chalcolithic-related)”..
However, as I said above, the population of Sidon around ~1700 BCE was already a veteran population of an old Canaanite city, which had a continuity of settelment since the Neolithic perid. This kind of Semitic population is what the Bible refers to as “Canaanites” and/or perhaps “Amorites” - But the Bible also speaks about many other people who satteled the land: Some of which, like the Philastines, came from different places along the northern coastes and Islands of the Mediterranean Sea, and some others most-likely came from different parts of what is today’s Turkey and “Kurdistan”:
The ancient music of the Psalms
The Psalms were written not merely as poems, but as songs for singing. More than a third of the psalms are addressed to the Director of Music. Some psalms exhort the worshipper to sing (e.g. Pss. 33:1-3; 92:1-3; 96:1-3; 98:1; 101:1; 150). Some headings denote the musical instruments on which the psalm should be played (Pss. 4, 5, 6, 8, 67). Some refer to singing at the sheminit or octave (Pss. 6, 12). And others preserve the name for ancient eastern modes, like mut la-ben (Death of the son; Ps. 9), ayelet ha-shachar (hind of the dawn; Ps. 22); shoshanim (Lilies; Ps. 45); or alamoth (Maidens?; Ps. 46).
The “Horites” (Hurrians):https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hurrians
The “Jebusites” (most probably a branch of the Hittites and/or Hurrians):https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jebusite
Despite the frequently heard view that their ancient music is lost, the means to reconstruct it are still extant. Fragments of temple psalmody are preserved in ancient church and synagogue chant, particularly in the tonus peregrinus melody to Psalm 114. Cantillation signs, to record the melody sung, were in use since ancient times; evidence of them can be found in the manuscripts of the oldest extant copies of Psalms in the Dead Sea Scrolls and are even more extensive in the Masoretic text, which dates to the Early Middle Ages and whose Tiberian scribes claimed to be basing their work on temple-period signs. (See Moshe ben Asher's 'Song of the Vine' colophon to the Codex Cairensis).
The “Hivites” (most likely Luwians from Anatolia, or maybe an alternative name for the Hittites and/or Hurrians)… https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/hbd/h/hittites-and-hivites.html
The places of origin of all those peoples can be seen in this map here:
Several attempts have been made to decode the Masoretic cantillation, but the most successful is that of Suzanne Haïk-Vantoura (1928–2000) in the last quarter of the 20th century. Although some have dismissed Haïk-Vantoura's system, Mitchell has repeatedly defended it, showing that, when applied to the Masoretic cantillation of Psalm 114, it produces a melody recognizable as the tonus peregrinus of church and synagogue. Mitchell includes musical transcriptions of the temple psalmody of Psalms 120–134 in his commentary on the Songs of Ascents.
These are the peoples that the Israelites mixed with according to the Bible. The people who were living in Shechem, Givon, Jerusalem and Hebron. So, if we really want to know what was the DNA landscape of Biblical Canaan, we must also pay etention to two more waves of migration that accored in Canaan before - and during - the time when the Israelites appeared…
Since we don’t know much about the migrations of the Hittites, Jebusites, Hivites and Girgashites - except for the fact that those people were there when the Israelites appeared, and were known to the authors of the Bible - let’s start with the major Hurrian migration to Canaan, between the 17th and 15th centuries BCE, as described by Edward Lipinski in his paper: “Hurrians and Their Gods in Canaan”:
Regardless of academic research, Sephardic Jews have retained a tradition in the Masoretic cantillation.
The pierced saint
“The first appearance of Hurrians and of personages bearing Indo-Aryan names in citystates of ancient Canaan can be dated to the late 16th century B.C. and be related to the expansive influence of the Mittannian empire. Information is provided mainly by written material from Shechem, by the tablets from Taanach, and by the Amarna letters, thus by sources dating from a period when Canaan was dominated by Egypt. Traces of this Hurrian presence are recognizable in Jerusalem until the 10th century B.C. and the Hurrian goddess Šuwala, the Queen of the netherworld, continued her career through centuries in the Hebrew literature in which she appears under the name of Sheol. Also a vague souvenir of the Hurrians persisted, called Horites in the Bible and regarded as a pre-Israelite population of Canaan. A particular attention is paid in the article to some personal names, like Šuwardata, Abdi-Ḫeba or Pora-Ḫeba, the name of a ruler of Jerusalem in the 14th century, further to Ḫutiya and to Bat-Tešub, also in Jerusalem.The very name used by the Egyptians for Canaan since the early 15th century B.C. was the Land of Ḫor (Ḫ3r)1, a word which at first had an ethnic connotation, designating the Hurrians, but was later used geographically and survived in the "Horites” of the Bible…The Hurrian expansion as far as southern Canaan took place not long before the early 15th century B.C. and it should very likely be linked to the rising power of the Mittannian empire, with which the sources suddenly confront us in the same period. This important state emerged in the 16th century in the area of the Habur triangle; it united the whole of Northern Mesopotamia and started extending its influence southwards. Wherever Hurrian personal names appear, quite distinct from the Semitic or Hittite-Luwian ones, the presence of this people must be assumed"…
[12:10] They look on him…thrust through: another possible rendering is “they shall look to me concerning him…thrust through.” In either case, the victim is an enigmatic figure, perhaps referring to a Davidic descendant, a priestly leader, or even a true prophet. Some historical event, unknown to us from any surviving source, may underlie this reference. The Gospel of John applies this text to the piercing of Christ’s side after his death (19:37).
* [12:11] The mourning for the pierced victim in Jerusalem is compared to the annual ritual mourning in the plain of Megiddo over the death of the Phoenician fertility god, Hadadrimmon. According to others, Hadadrimmon is the name of a place near Megiddo, and the reference would then be to the mourning over the death of King Josiah at the hands of Pharaoh Neco in 609 B.C.; cf. 2 Kgs 23:29–30; 2 Chr 35:22–25.
Amorites: It appears canaanite society antedated Amorite Society (MAR.TU)
The MAR.TU who know no grain.... The MAR.TU who know no house nor town, the boors of the mountains.... The MAR.TU who digs up truffles... who does not bend his knees (to cultivate the land), who eats raw meat, who has no house during his lifetime, who is not buried after death[.]
For more information about this migration, see: Nadav Na'aman, “The Hurrians and the End of the Middle Bronze Age in Palestine”, Canaan in the Second Millennium B.C.E.https://books.google.co.il/books?id=HmTOoQmf23AC&pg=PA1&source=gbs_toc_r&cad=4#v=onepage&q&f=false
Daniel 7: indicates an ancient of days and "one like a son of man" El and El-Yahweh?
So, to make a long story a bit shorter, between the 1700 and 1500 BCE, there was another massive migration of Indo-Aryan and Anatolian populations from different parts of Turkey and North Mesopotamia into the Levant, and especially to those areas in Canaan in which the Israelites lived some 500 years after…
This shows the Amorites or MAR.TU may have been this zagros addition to the local population
The Tanakh is what is left after canaanite religion has been winnowed down to El and Yahweh
Now, before we get (in my next comment) to the second wave of migration, at the end of the Late Bronze Age - which included the Philastins and other “Sea People” from South-East Europe, and probably some major elements of the Israelite population itself (from the area of Harran in south Turkey) - it should be noted that already there’s an ongoing study that compares samples from ~1500 BCE Meggido with Ashkenazi Jews, and the Abstract was already published. According to this: “Ashkenazi Jews can be modeled as ≈55% BA Canaanites and ≈45% Neolithic Central Europeans”. Here, look:
When Canaanites are condemned in the tanakh, it is essentially a condemnation of those who did not convert to the same set of developments that introduced this priesthood.
“Shai Carmi, Lily Agranat-Tamir, Shamam Waldman, Naama Yahalom-Mack, Meirav Meiri, Nadin Rohland, Swapan Mallick, Mario AS Martin, Benjamin Yakir, Israel Finkelstein, Liran Carmel, David Reich
1) Braun School of Public Health and Community Medicine, 2) Department of Genetics, 3) Department of Statistics, and 4) Institute of Archaeology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel; 5) Department of Archaeology, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel; 6) Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, 7) Broad Institute, and 8) Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Cambridge, MA, USA
Sepher Yetzira is Levite - Levites are E and P ?
Canaanites were the indigenous population of the Southern Levant during the 2nd millennium BCE. Their genetic origin and impact on modern populations have recently started to unravel following an analysis of a Lebanese sample. To study Canaanites from other Levant regions and their genomic heritage in the broader Middle East, we sequenced five petrous bones from Megiddo, Israel, dated to the Middle/Late Bronze Age (BA) transition (≈3.5 KYA). We enriched the DNA for approximately 1.2 million SNP targets, followed by sequencing at coverage >0.25x. Using a combination of statistical tools (PCA, f-statistics, ADMIXTURE, qpAdm), we found that the Megiddo samples can be modeled as a mixture of earlier samples from the Levant and Iran, the latter possibly representing migration via Armenia. The Megiddo samples showed high similarity to older Levant BA samples, as well as to a later Iron Age (IA, ≈3 KYA) sample that we sequenced from Abel Beth Maacah in Northern Israel. The genomes of modern native Levantine populations trace ≈60% of their ancestry to IA Canaanites, ≈10% to Eastern Africa, and the remaining to less well characterized sources, possibly related to Iran. The genomes of Ashkenazi Jews can be modeled as ≈55% BA Canaanites and ≈45% Neolithic Central Europeans, and those of Iraqi Jews as ≈70% BA Canaanites and ≈30% Neolithic Iranians. To validate the results, we developed a novel extension of ChromoPainter that can take advantage of the information in linked SNPs to paint ancient chromosomes and model their ancestry. Our results confirm previous findings regarding the mixed Levantine-Iranian ancestry of BA Canaanites, and suggest remarkable continuity in the region throughout the Bronze and Iron Ages. Using existing and new methods, we characterized the ancestry of modern Middle-Eastern populations as a combination of pre-existing groups from the Middle-East and beyond.”https://anthrogenica.com/showthread.php?12623-Abstracts-from-Human-Evolution-2017-conference
Levites left Egypt in 13th century or 12th - they arrived in land and felt kinship with Israelites
J and P -
Does J show annhilation of canaan etc
no law of circumsision
TRACING THE LEVITES
Nicholas Wade The New York Times
SOUTH FLORIDA SUN-SENTINEL
Enter your email
Ateam of geneticists studying the ancestry of Jewish communities has found an unusual genetic signature that occurs in more than half the Levites of European descent.
Interesting, right? :-)
The gene is thought to have originated in Central Asia, not the Middle East, the ancestral home of Jews. The finding raises the question of how the signature became so widespread among the Levites, an ancient tribe of Jewish priests.
It also raises the intriguing possibility that many Jews have Asian genes, or that medieval central Asians had priestly Jewish genes. But it raises the question: How did the genes arrive in central Asia?
The genetic signature comes from a few men -- perhaps a single ancestor -- who lived about 1,000 years ago, just as Jews were forming communities in Europe.
The report, published in a recent issue of The American Journal of Human Genetics, was prepared by population geneticists in Israel, the United States and England, who have been studying the genetics of Jewish communities for the past six years.
The ancestor who introduced it into the Ashkenazi Levites could perhaps have been from the Khazars, a Central Asian tribe whose king converted to Judaism in the eighth or ninth century, the researchers suggest.
Their reasoning is that the signature -- a set of DNA variations known as R1a1 -- is relatively common in the region north of Georgia once occupied by the Khazar kingdom. The gene did reach the Near East, probably before the founding of the Jewish community, but is still very rare there.
Shaye Cohen, professor of Hebrew literature and philosophy at Harvard, said he could see no problem with outsiders being converted into the Jewish community. However, he considered it less probable that outsiders would become Levites, let alone founding members of the Levite community in Europe. The connection with the Khazars is "all hypothesis," he said.
Even if the Khazar hypothesis is correct, it would have no practical effect on who is a Levite today. "Genetics is not a reality under rabbinic law," Cohen said. "Second, the function of Levites is so minimal it doesn't mean anything."
Six years ago, Hammer and Dr. Karl Skorecki, of the Technion and Rambam Medical Center in Haifa, looked at the male DNA of both Levites and Cohanim -- two hereditary priesthoods of the ancient Israelites -- that was passed from father to son.
If patrilineal descent had been followed as tradition describes, then all Cohanim should be descended from Aaron, the brother of Moses, and all Levites from Levi, the third son of the patriarch Jacob.
In fact, Hammer and Skorecki found that more than half the Cohanim, in both the Ashkenazi and Sephardi communities, did carry the same genetic marker on their Y or male chromosome. Their ancestor lived some 3,000 years ago, based on genetic calculations, and may indeed have been Aaron, Skorecki says.
But the picture among the Levites was less clear, suggesting they had a mixed ancestry. Hammer and Skorecki returned to the puzzle to prepare their new report, based on data gathered from nearly 1,000 men of European and Middle Eastern origin and neighboring non-Jewish populations.
They found the dominant gene among the Levites was the R1a1 signature, which is different from the Cohanim signature. And the Levites showed found different genetic lines between European and Middle Eastern Levites. The first man with the R1a1 signature apparently lived a thousand years ago, much more recent than the founder of the Cohanim signature.
The Levites' pedigree does not seem to accord with tradition as well as the Cohanim one does, but is venerable nonetheless.
"How many people can trace their ancestry back to the 17th century, let alone a thousand years?" Hammer asked.