Remaining Free Tribes Of the world

Remaining Free Tribes Of the World


Andaman Islands

Two tribes of the Andaman Islands, belonging to India, have sought to avoid contact with the outside world.

The Sentinelese continue to actively and violently reject contact. They live on North Sentinel island, a small and remote island which lies to the west of the southern part of South Andaman Island. They are thought to number around 250 (median estimate). Based on helicopter surveys of the island, the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami does not appear to have affected the Sentinelese adversely.

They are believed to be directly descended from the first humans that emerged "out of Africa". It is estimated that they have lived on their island for 60,000 years. Their language is markedly different from even other languages on the Andamans, which suggests that they have remained uncontacted for thousands of years. They are thus considered the most isolated people in the world, and they are likely to remain so, because India abandoned attempts to make contact. [2]

Another Andamanese tribe, the Jarawa, live on the main islands. They rejected all contact, but following the completion of a trunk road traversing their territory in 1997, some have begun emerging from the forest to beg for food. They are thought to number 300 persons.

Tribal people's group:


The Ruc people, when first "discovered" by North Vietnamese soldiers during the Vietnam War, were still hunting-gathering tribes, dwelling in caves of eastern Quang Binh province. Since then, the government has made many attempts to relocate and settle them.[3]



Main article: Pintupi Nine

In 1984, a group of Pintupi people who were living a traditional hunter-gatherer life were tracked down in the Gibson Desert in Western Australia. For the first time they encountered people from European-Australian society. They are believed to be the last uncontacted tribe in Australia.[4]

New Guinea

Large areas of New Guinea are yet to be explored by scientists and anthropologists due to a lack of safety. The province of Irian Jaya or West Papua in the island of New Guinea is home to an estimated 44 uncontacted tribal groups.[5] Isolated tribes have been reported also in the eastern Indonesian islands.

The Americas:


The Lacandon of Chiapas, near the border with Guatemala, were the last known isolated people in North America. They were contacted in 1924.

On January 18, 2007, FUNAI reported that it had confirmed the presence of 67 uncontacted tribes in Brazil, up from 40 in 2005.[7] With this reported increase, Brazil has surpassed the island of New Guinea as the region having the highest number of uncontacted tribes (however, numbers are not available for Papua New Guinea).


As of 2006, the presence of five uncontacted groups was confirmed in Bolivia. A further three are to be confirmed. Those uncontacted groups whose presence has been confirmed are:Ayoreo in Parque Nacional Kaa Iya, Mbya-Yuqui in Yuqui Reservation and Rio Usurinta (most of the Yuqui are now contacted, only a few families remain uncontacted), Yurakare in Santa Cruz and Beni, Pacahuara in the Chacobo reservation, and Araona in the Araona Reservation. The presence of other groups such as Toromona in the Parque Nacional Madidi, and Nahuain the PN Madidi are yet to be confirmed.


Main article: Indigenous peoples of Africa

The continent of Africa, including associated islands such as Madagascar, but excluding Arabia.


Central Africa

Central Africa generally includes the lands mainly of the Congo River basin, south of the Sahara and west of the Great Rift Valley.

East Africa

East Africa generally includes the Horn of Africa region and (parts of) surrounding countries.


Despite ongoing paramilitary conflict, Colombia is a country which offers maximum protection for isolated groups. Carabayo-Aroje is the most important group, living in the Parque Nacional del Rio Pure. It is not known whether any Yari survives now. Nukaak Maku were contacted in 2003 and 65% of the tribal members died of disease. Around two or three dozen Nukaak still remain isolated.


It is not known whether any Tagaeri survives now in Yasuni National Park. In the 1990s when a member of Tagaeri was contacted by a lone Huaorani hunter, he told him that Tagaeri numbers only a handful of members and are in danger of being wiped out by their hostile neighbours — the Taromenane. Since then there have been no more peaceful contacts. The Tagaeri hunter also mentioned about another group, the Oñamenane who numbered five or six individuals and there was one more tribe — the Huiñatare. In 2003 about 30 Taromenane were massacred by the Huaorani in retaliation for the killing of a Huaorani hunter. In the same year 14 Tagaeri were killed by loggers. In April 2006 a logger was speared to death by the Taromenane (in 2005 another one was also killed by the same tribe, whose body was later found embedded with 30 spears and his face unrecognizable). In the same month a further 30 Taromenane and 10 loggers were killed in conflicts according to leader Iki Ima Omene (of Huaorani). In Jan 2007 the president of Ecuador declared the Southern part of Yasuni a forbidden zone (7,580 square kilometers) in order to protect the uncontacted people. At the same time CONAIE reported that there are a total of 150–300 Taromenane (divided into two sub-tribes) and 20–30 Tagaeri surviving uncontacted there. The Oñamenane and Huiñatare are extinct. Ecuador continues to be the country with the largest number of uncontacted people massacred since 2000.


North Africa

North Africa generally includes African countries with borders on the Mediterranean and northern Red Sea and Atlantic Ocean, bounded largely by the Sahara Desert to the south.

French Guiana

Southern Africa

Southern Africa generally includes lands from the Cape of Good Hope northwards to the borders of Democratic Republic of the Congo and Tanzania, and islands such as Madagascar.


There are now five reserves in the Peruvian Amazon meant to protect the lands and rights of isolated peoples. Most of the reserves are currently entered by illegal loggers and petroleum companies with legal concessions to work in those lands, although their activities jeopardize the lives of the isolated populations.

After Brazil (43 uncontacted groups confirmed) and New Guinea (Papua New Guinea and Iriyan Jaya), Peru has the largest number of uncontacted tribes in the world. Some of the groups in Peru are in danger of extermination by loggers and oil development. As of 2006, the locations where uncontacted groups are confirmed to be living are as follows:

    1. Reserva Comunal Amarakaeri: Groups are Yora and other unidentified Panoan tribes.

    2. Zona Reservada Biabo Cordillera Azul: Cacatibo.

    3. Parque Nacional del Manu: Mashco-Piro, uncontacted bands of Matsiguenga, tribes belonging to Yura family and unidentified tribes.

    4. Reserva Comunal Asháninka, Reserva Comunal Matsiguenga and Parque Nacional Otishi: uncontacted bands of Ashaninka.

    5. Parque Nacional Alto Purús and Reserva Comunal Purús: Yaminahua, Chitonahua, Curajeño and Mashco-Piro-Iñapari.

    6. Reserva Territorial del Estado: Kungapakori, Nahua, Matsiguenga, Nanti, Krineri and other unidentified tribes.

    7. Reserva Territorial del Murunahua y Chitonahua: Murunahua, Chitonahua.

    8. Reserva Territorial del Isconahua: Isconahua.

    9. Reserva Territorial del Mashco-Piro: Various tribes belonging to Mashco-Piro such as Mascho-Piro-Iñapari.

    10. Reservas territoriales del Cacataibo: Cacataibo.



the Americas is the continent (or supercontinent) comprising North and South America, and associated islands.

Main article: Classification of indigenous peoples of the Americas

The Caribbean

the Caribbean, or West Indies, generally includes the island chains of the Caribbean.

  • Galibi

    • Neo-Taíno nations Some scholars distinguish between the Taíno and Neo-Taíno groups. Neo-Taíno groups were also Amerindians of the Antilles islands, but had distinctive languages and cultural practices that differed from the High Taíno.[2] These groups include;



There remain perhaps as many as 300 Totobiegosode who have not been contacted; they belong to the Ayoreo ethnicity, which numbers around 2,000. In the 1990s the main group attempting to contact them was New Tribes Mission. In 1979 and 1986, the New Tribes Mission was accused of assisting in the forcible contact of nomadic Ayoreo Indians, whose unsuccessful attempts to remain in the forest led to several deaths. Others died soon after being brought out of the forest. The incident forced some Ayoreo to flee to Bolivia. The main threat currently are the ranchers. In 2004 a group of 17 Ayoreo-Totobiegosode previously uncontacted made contact with the outside world and decided to settle down (five men, seven women and five children, according to Survival). It was not known whether there were any more isolated Ayoreo left in the jungle. But in the first week of September 2007, another uncontacted band of Ayoreo-Totobiegosode were spotted by loggers in the Western Chaco. Ayoreo are believed to be the last uncontacted Indians south of the Amazon basin.[9] In 2008, a Paraguayan ruling blocked a Brazilian company from clearing Totobiegosode to make room for cattle ranches.[10][11]Although the forest is still being cleared illegally.[12]

Central America and Mexico

Central America generally includes the part of the North American (sub-)contintent from southern Mexico to and including Panama, this section includes indigenous peoples of Mexico.

Popular culture

Uncontacted tribes remain a fascination in Western culture. Recently, the idea of tour operators offering extreme adventure tours to specifically search out uncontacted peoples has become a controversial subject [13]. A BBC Four documentary in 2006 documented a controversial American tour operator who specializes in escorted tours to "discover" uncontacted peoples in West Papua [14] similar to the BBC's own adventure in Papua New Guinea to make their 1971 documentary A Blank on the Map in which the first contact in over a decade was made with the Biami people.[citation needed]

Uncontacted tribes have also emerged in works of literature and film. One of them was The Lost World by Arthur Conan Doyle released in 1912. It depicts early human hominids in the jungle of South America. Inspired by it, a Russian novel written in 1924, Sannikov Land, describes an island off the Siberian coast populated by an isolated Siberian tribe of Onkilon (another name for non-fictional Yuit thought to be extinct at the time), followed in 1973 by a Soviet movie The Sannikov Land. The 1995 film Last of the Dogmen tells the story of a group of uncontacted Cheyenne discovered living in a remote part of Montana. In the 1991 film At Play in the Fields of the Lord (based on the novel of the same name), an American pilot parachutes from an airplane into the Amazon where he encounters and lives with a previously uncontacted tribe. The 1985 film The Emerald Forest features a Western boy kidnapped by a previously uncontacted Amazonian tribe called the "Invisible People". The 1980 film The Gods Must Be Crazy dealt with a fictitious uncontacted tribe in South Africa. The tribe enjoy idyllic lives until they are set into chaos simply by contact with an object (a Coca-Cola bottle) from modern society. One of the tribe's elders (played by a !Kung man) sets out to throw the bottle off the "edge of the earth" to save his tribe. In 2006 the docudrama End of the Spear recounts the story of Operation Auca, in which five American Christian missionaries attempted to evangelize the Huaorani people of the jungles of Ecuador.

North America

North America generally includes Greenland, Canada, the United States, Mexico, and the eastern Aleutian Islands.

Main articles: List of First Nations peoples and Federally recognized tribes


The (sub-)continent of Asia, including related islands, the Indian subcontinent