earliest buddhist texts
“Muddhaṁ muddhādhipātañ-ca, Bāvarī paripucchati,
“About the head and head-splitting, Bāvari asks (this question),
byākarohi Bhagavā, kankhaṁ vinaya no ise.” [50 (1025)]
please explain that O Gracious One, please remove our doubts, O seer.”
“Avijjā muddhā ti jānāhi, vijjā muddhādhipātinī,
"Know ignorance is called the head, and understanding is the head-splitter,
saddhāsatisamādhīhi, chandaviri yena saṁyutā.” [51 (1026)]
joined with confidence, mindfulness, concentration, desire, and energy.”
“Kenassu nivuto loko? icc-āyasmā Ajito,
“By what is the world enveloped? said venerable Ajita,
Why does it not become clear?
Kissābhilepanaṁ brūsi? Kiṁ su tassa mahabbhayaṁ?” [57 (1032) 11]
What do you say is its defilement? What is (the world's) great fear?”
“Avijjāya nivuto loko, Ajitā ti Bhagavā,
“The world is enveloped by ignorance, Ajita, said the Gracious One,
vevicchā pamādā nappakāsati.
because of heedlessness and meanness it does not become clear.
Jappābhilepanaṁ brūmi dukkham-assa mahabbhayaṁ” [58 (1033) 12]
Hunger is its defilement, I say; suffering is (the world's) great fear.”
“Savanti sabbadhi sotā, icc-āyasmā Ajito,
“Streams are flowing everywhere, said venerable Ajita,
sotānaṁ kiṁ nivāraṇaṁ?
what is the constraint for streams?
Sotānaṁ saṁvaraṁ brūhi, kena sotā pithiyyare?” [59 (1034) 13]
Tell me the restraint for streams; by what are the streams shut off?”
“Yāni sotāni lokasmiṁ, Ajitā ti Bhagavā,
“Whatever streams there are in the world, Ajita, said the Gracious One,
sati tesaṁ nivāraṇaṁ.
mindfulness is the constraint for them.
Sotānaṁ saṁvaraṁ brūmi, paññāy' ete pithiyyare.” [60 (1035) 14]
That is the restraint for streams, I say; by wisdom they are shut off.”
“Paññā c' eva sati cāpi, icc-āyasmā Ajito,
“Wisdom and also mindfulness, said venerable Ajita,
Yattha nāmañ-ca rūpañ-ca asesaṁ uparujjhati:
As to where mind and body ceases without remainder:
viññāṇassa nirodhena, etth' etaṁ uparujjhati.” [62 (1037) 16]
with the cessation of consciousness, in this place it ceases.”
“Ye ca saṅkhātadhammāse, ye ca sekhā puthū idha,
“Those who have discerned the Teaching, and the many in training here,
tesaṁ me nipako iriyaṁ puṭṭho pabrūhi mārisa.” [63 (1038) 17]
when I ask the prudent one, please tell me their conduct, dear Sir.”
“Kāmesu nābhigijjheyya, manasānāvilo siyā.
“He should not be greedy for sense pleasures, or be disturbed in mind.
Kusalo sabbadhammānaṁ sato bhikkhu paribbaje” ti. [64 (1039) 18]
Skilful in all things, the monk should wander mindfully.”
atha ko carahi Devamanussaloke
then just who in the world of the Gods and men
atāri jātiñ-ca jarañ-ca mārisa?
has crossed over birth and old age, dear Sir?
Pucchāmi taṁ Bhagavā brūhi me taṁ.” [72 (1047) 35]
I ask you, Gracious One, please tell this to me.”
“Saṅkhāya lokasmiṁ paroparāni, Puṇṇakā ti Bhagavā,
“The one who has discerned far and near in the world, said the Gracious One to Puṇṇaka,
yass' iñjitaṁ n' atthi kuhiñci loke,
who has no turmoil anywhere in the world,
santo vidhūmo anīgho nirāso,
who is peaceful, not incensed, not troubled, not yearning,
atāri so jātijaran-ti brūmī” ti [73 (1048) 36]
he has crossed over birth and old age, I say”
Upadhīnidānā pabhavanti dukkhā
Because of clinging to a basis countless kinds
ye keci lokasmiṁ anekarūpā. [75 (1050) 42]
of suffering originate for whoever is in the world.
Yo ve avidvā upadhiṁ karoti
The foolish one, without wisdom, clings to a basis,
punappunaṁ dukkham-upeti mando.
and comes to suffering again and again, the fool.
Tasmā pajānaṁ upadhiṁ na kayirā,
Therefore knowing this, do not cling to a basis,
dukkhassa jātippabhavānupassī.” [76 (1051) 43]
seeing the birth and origin of suffering.”
Tena h' ātappaṁ karohi, Dhotakā ti Bhagavā,
“Then you must become ardent, Dhotaka said the Gracious One,
idh' eva nipako sato,
being prudent and mindful right here,
ito sutvāna nigghosaṁ, sikkhe Nibbānam-attano.” [87 (1062) 5-2]
henceforth, after hearing this utterance you should train for your own Nibbāna.”
“Yaṁ kiñci sampajānāsi, Dhotakā ti Bhagavā,
“Whatever you know, Dhotaka, said the Gracious One,
uddhaṁ adho tiriyañ-cāpi majjhe,
above, below, and across the middle,
etaṁ viditvā ‘saṅgo’ ti loke,
having understood this is called a shackle in the world,
bhavābhavāya mākāsi taṇhan”-ti. [93 (1068) 5-8]
you must not have craving for repeated existence.”
Hard to fathom...
“Atthaṁgato so uda vā sŏ n' atthi? icc-āyasmā Upasīvo,
“The one who has come to rest, is he then nothing? said venerable Upasīva,
Udāhu ve sassatiyā arogo?
or is he actually eternally healthy?
Taṁ me Munī sādhu viyākarohi,
Please explain this to me, O Sage,
tathā hi te vidito esa Dhammo.” [100 (1075) 6-7]
for this Teaching has been understood by you.”
“Atthaṁgatassa na pamāṇam-atthi, Upasīvā ti Bhagavā,
“There is no measure of the one who has come to rest, Upasīva, said the Gracious One,
yena naṁ vajju' taṁ tassa n' atthi,
there is nothing by which they can speak of him,
sabbesu dhammesu samūhatesu,
when everything has been completely removed,
samūhatā vādapathā pi sabbe” ti. [101 (1076) 6-8]
all the pathways for speech are also completely removed.”