What Makes a noble person

Who is a man? He who can control himself! (Rabbinic)

Who is Rich ? He who knows he has enough (Rabbinic)

Buddha on who is a noble person (Brahman) Not claiming I have achieved this by the way:

He, who does not hoard, who is free of attachment and greed, is fearless having broken all fetters that bind him to the wheel of birth and death, who has driven out anger and craving from the mind, who has broken himself free from all wrong views (62 kinds of wrong views were prevalent in those days), who is fully enlightened, him I call a brahman.

I call him a brahman, one who bears insults and pains without reaction, without being angry i.e. without polluting his mind, whose strength is forgiveness, who is free from anger, who is virtuous, moral, learned, and abstemious, and for whom this is the last birth. I call him a brahman who does not cling to sensual pleasures like the water drops on a lotus leaf, or in whom jealousy, pride, craving, and aversion do not stick, like a mustard seed on the tip of a needle, who has ended sorrow in this life and has thrown off all his burden, who is of deep wisdom, learned, who knows what is the path and what is not the path, is honest, who is neither attached to householders nor to those who have left home for the homeless life, who neither kills any being, nor instigates others to kill, who is peaceful amongst adversaries, without any stick amongst those armed with sticks, a non-hoarder amongst hoarders, who is respectful, and whose words are sweet and true, words that never hurt others, a person so qualified I call a brahman.

Thus, the Blessed One described further the virtues of a brahman. One who doesn’t take anything in this world which is not given to him, who is free from craving for this life or the life beyond, who has realized the ultimate truth, who shows the path to liberation, who is free from sorrow, who is untainted and pure, who is attached neither to sin nor to virtue, whose cravings for all his births have been rooted out, who has forsaken the ignorance that causes the cycle of birth and death, who has become an ascetic giving up all enjoyments, who is unfettered by all worldly and heavenly bonds, and who having discarded the likes and dislikes has become calm and cool and free from defilements, such a universally victorious person do I call a brahman. One who knows the passing away and arising of all beings very well, who is desire less, free from rebirth, who is endowed with wisdom, him I call a brahman. Neither a Deva, nor a Gandharva, nor a man knows his course, who is free from taints, is an arahant, who has nothing before, after or in the middle, who is without any property, who knows his previous births, sees heaven and hell, who is not going to be reborn, all that he had to do has been done, and who is an enlightened sage, him I call a brahman."

The Buddha described who truly is an outcaste. "The man who is hot tempered, jealous and hostile, is a sinner, holds wrong view, is a fraud, is cruel, is a tormentor, is a thief, is licentious; one who doesn't take care of his old parents, troubles others, deceives brahmans, monks or other beggars; utters words that cause harm; hides his immoral acts; praises himself and derides others; who is angry, is a glutton, who is full of ill-desires; is a miser, is wicked; is neither ashamed nor afraid of wrong doings; who calls himself fully liberated without being so; such a man is an outcaste and despicable. One is neither an outcaste by birth nor a brahman by birth. Actions make one an outcaste and another a brahman. A brahman doing unwholesome actions is a Cāndāla.

The Virtues of Buddhism


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Perfection of Giving (Dana)

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When giving, or generosity, is perfected, it is selfless. There is no measure of gaining or losing. There are no strings attached and no expectations of thanks or reciprocation. The giving is gratifying in and of itself, and there is no hint of reluctance or loss to the act of giving.

Giving in this unencumbered way loosens the grip of greed and helps to develop non-attachment. Such giving also develops virtue and leads naturally to the next perfection, morality.


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Perfection of Morality (Sila)

Although it is said that moral behavior flows naturally from releasing selfish desires, it's also the case that releasing selfish desires flows naturally from moral behavior.

In much of Asia, the most basic Buddhist practices for laypeople are giving alms to monastics and practicing the Precepts. The Precepts are not a list of arbitrary rules so much as they are principles to apply to one's life, in order to live harmoniously with others.

Appreciation of the values of giving and living in harmony with others leads to the next perfection, renunciation.


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Perfection of Renunciation (Nekkhamma)

Renunciation in Buddhism can be understood as letting go of whatever binds us to suffering and ignorance. Although this sounds simple, it is easier said than done, because those things that bind us are the very things we mistakenly think we must in order to be happy.

The Buddha taught that genuine renunciation requires thoroughly perceiving how we make ourselves unhappy by grasping and greediness. When we do, renunciation naturally follows, and it is a positive and liberating act, not a punishment.

Renunciation is said to be perfected by wisdom, which is the next parami.


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The Perfection of Discerning Wisdom (Panna)

Wisdom in this case means seeing the true nature of the phenomenal world--the inherent emptiness and impermanence of all things. Wisdom also entails a deep insight into the Four Noble Truths--the truth of suffering, the causes of suffering, the cessation of suffering and the path toward cessation.

Wisdom is perfected by the next parami--energy.


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Perfection of Energy (Virya)

Energy, virya, refers to walking the spiritual path with the fearlessness and determination of a warrior. It means following the path with diligence and steadfast interest in spite of all obstacles. Such fearlessness follows naturally from the perfection of wisdom.

The perfection and channeling of energy and effort help bring about patience.


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Perfection of Patience (Khanti)

Having developed the energy and fearlessness of a warrior, we can now develop patience, or khanti. Khanti means "unaffected by" or "able to withstand." It could be translated as tolerance, endurance and composure, as well as patience or forbearance. To practice the parami of patience is to accept all that happens with equanimity and an understanding that whatever happens, it is a part of the spiritual path. Khanti helps us endure the hardships of our own lives, as well as the suffering created by others, even when we try to help them.


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Perfection of Truthfulness

Having developed patience and forbearance, we are better able to speak the truth even when people don't want to hear it. Truthfulness manifests excellence and honesty and helps develop determination.

It also means acknowledging the truth to ourselves, and it goes hand-in-hand with the development of discerning wisdom.


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Perfection of Determination (Adhitthana)

Determination helps us to clarify what is necessary for enlightenment and focus upon it, ​and to eliminate or ignore whatever is in the way. It is a resolve to continue along the path no matter what obstacles present themselves. The clear, unfettered path helps develop loving kindness.


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Perfection of Loving kindness (Metta)

Loving kindness is a mental state cultivated by practice. It involves a deliberate and total abandonment of self-centeredness in favor of understanding that the suffering of others is our own suffering.

Perfecting metta is essential to doing away with the self-clinging that binds us to suffering. Metta is the antidote to selfishness, anger and fear.


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Perfection of Equanimity (Upekkha)

Equanimity allows us to see things impartially, without the influence of the tyranny of ego. With equanimity, we are no longer pulled this way and that by our passions, likes, and dislikes.

Thich Nhat Hanh says (in The Heart of the Buddha's Teaching, p. 161) that the Sanskrit word upeksha means "equanimity, nonattachment, nondiscrimination, even-mindedness, or letting go. Upa means 'over,' and iksh means 'to look.' You climb the mountain to be able to look over the whole situation, not bound by one side or the other."

What of Compassion and sympathetic joy? (Karuna and Mudita)

48 qualities to study Torah

The 48 virtues for study of Torah

Torah is greater than priesthood and kingship, for kingship is acquired with 30 qualities, priesthood is acquired with 24,


Torah is greater than the priesthood or sovereignty, for sovereignty is acquired with thirty virtues, the priesthood with twenty-four, and Torah is acquired with forty-eight qualities. These are: study, listening, verbalizing, comprehension of the heart, awe, fear, humility, joy, purity, serving the sages, companionship with one's contemporaries, debating with one's students, tranquility, study of the scriptures, study of the Mishnah, minimizing engagement in business, minimizing socialization, minimizing pleasure, minimizing sleep, minimizing talk, minimizing gaiety, slowness to anger, good heartedness, faith in the sages, acceptance of suffering, knowing one's place, satisfaction with one's lot, qualifying one's words, not taking credit for oneself, likableness, love of G‑d, love of humanity, love of charity, love of justice, love of rebuke, fleeing from honor, lack of arrogance in learning, reluctance to hand down rulings, participating in the burden of one's fellow, judging him to the side of merit, correcting him, bringing him to a peaceful resolution [of his disputes], deliberation in study, asking and answering, listening and illuminating, learning in order to teach, learning in order to observe, wising one's teacher, exactness in conveying a teaching, and saying something in the name of its speaker. Thus we have learned: One who says something in the name of its speaker brings redemption to the world, as is stated (Esther 2:22), "And Esther told the king in the name of Mordechai."


גְּדוֹלָה תוֹרָה יוֹתֵר מִן הַכְּהֻנָּה וּמִן הַמַּלְכוּת, שֶׁהַמַּלְכוּת נִקְנִית בִּשְׁלֹשִׁים מַעֲלוֹת, וְהַכְּהֻנָּה בְּעֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבַּע, וְהַתּוֹרָה נִקְנִית בְּאַרְבָּעִים וּשְׁמוֹנָה דְבָרִים. וְאֵֽלּוּ הֵן: בְּתַלְמוּד, בִּשְׁמִיעַת הָאֹֽזֶן, בַּעֲרִיכַת שְׂפָתַֽיִם, בְּבִינַת הַלֵּב, בְּאֵימָה, בְּיִרְאָה, בַּעֲנָוָה, בְּשִׂמְחָה, בְּטָהֳרָה, בְּשִׁמּוּשׁ חֲכָמִים, בְּדִבּוּק חֲבֵרִים, בְּפִלְפּוּל הַתַּלְמִידִים, בְּיִשּׁוּב, בְּמִקְרָא, בְּמִשְׁנָה, בְּמִעוּט סְחוֹרָה, בְּמִעוּט דֶּֽרֶךְ אֶֽרֶץ, בְּמִעוּט תַּעֲנוּג, בְּמִעוּט שֵׁנָה, בְּמִעוּט שִׂיחָה, בְּמִעוּט שְׂחוֹק, בְּאֶֽרֶךְ אַפַּֽיִם, בְּלֶב טוֹב, בֶּאֱמוּנַת חֲכָמִים, בְּקַבָּלַת הַיִּסּוֹרִין, הַמַּכִּיר אֶת מְקוֹמוֹ, וְהַשָּׂמֵֽחַ בְּחֶלְקוֹ, וְהָעוֹשֶׂה סְיָג לִדְבָרָיו, וְאֵינוֹ מַחֲזִיק טוֹבָה לְעַצְמוֹ, אָהוּב, אוֹהֵב אֶת הַמָּקוֹם, אוֹהֵב אֶת הַבְּרִיּוֹת, אוֹהֵב אֶת הַצְּדָקוֹת, אוֹהֵב אֶת הַמֵּישָׁרִים, אוֹהֵב אֶת הַתּוֹכָחוֹת, וּמִתְרַחֵק מִן הַכָּבוֹד, וְלֹא מֵגִיס לִבּוֹ בְּתַלְמוּדוֹ, וְאֵינוֹ שָׂמֵֽחַ בְּהוֹרָאָה, נוֹשֵׂא בְעוֹל עִם חֲבֵרוֹ, וּמַכְרִיעוֹ לְכַף זְכוּת, וּמַעֲמִידוֹ עַל הָאֱמֶת, וּמַעֲמִידוֹ עַל הַשָּׁלוֹם, וּמִתְיַשֵּׁב לִבּוֹ בְּתַלְמוּדוֹ, שׁוֹאֵל וּמֵשִׁיב, שׁוֹמֵֽעַ וּמוֹסִיף, הַלּוֹמֵד עַל מְנָת לְלַמֵּד, וְהַלּוֹמֵד עַל מְנָת לַעֲשׂוֹת, הַמַּחְכִּים אֶת רַבּוֹ, וְהַמְכַוֵּן אֶת שְׁמוּעָתוֹ, וְהָאוֹמֵר דָּבָר בְּשֵׁם אוֹמְרוֹ, הָא לָמַֽדְתָּ, כָּל הָאוֹמֵר דָּבָר בְּשֵׁם אוֹמְרוֹ, מֵבִיא גְאֻלָּה לָעוֹלָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וַתֹּֽאמֶר אֶסְתֵּר לַמֶּֽלֶךְ בְּשֵׁם מָרְדְּכָי.